Japan’s Occupation of Manchuria and the Establishment of the Manchukuo State in the Light of Turkish Diplomatic Documents (1931-1933)
Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi, İletişim Fakültesi, Halkla İlişkiler ve Tanıtım Bölümü, Ankara/TÜRKİYE
Keywords: Japan, China, Türkiye, Manchuria, Manchukuo, League of Nations.
Since the second half of the 19th century, Japan has entered a serious modernization process. The country, which has undergone a quick change and transformation has completed all the technological, economical, military, and social developments, which lasted centuries for the western countries to achieve. However, it was unable to fit within its boundaries by the end of that rapid development. In particular, providing new settlements for its growing population; finding raw materials and markets for its industrializing and developing economy prompted the country to have expansionist policies. This expansionism turning into an imperialistic structure brought Japan up against China and Russia, another expansionist power. Japan became the biggest power of Asia after emerging victorious in the wars waged against the two countries. After the First World War, it strengthened its position even further and became one of the great powers directing world politics. Japan, which wanted to keep its ground strengthening, invaded Manchuria as per its interests. China, which objected to the occupation of its own lands under false pretenses, resorted to the League of Nations. The League of Nations appointed an international commission to investigate the cases in the region. Meanwhile, Japan had a new state, named Manchukuo, founded in Manchuria to put a different complexion on its occupation. The League of Nations decided upon the termination of the occupation and the reinstatement of the region; Japan disclaimed these decisions and declared its withdrawal from the League. Türkiye followed the developments in the Far East and their repercussions on world politics via its representatives in foreign countries while it endeavored to allocate peace. Moreover, Türkiye, which tried to determine a policy about whether to recognize Manchukuo directed by Japan or not, attempted to gather detailed information about its relations and current structure.