The Conduct of War as a Rivalry or Cooperation Field Between Khulafa and ‘Ulamā (2nd-3rd/8th-9th Centuries)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Tarih Bölümü, Ankara /TÜRKİYE
Keywords: Jihād, Caliph, Caliphate, ‘Ulamā, Umayyad, ‘Abbāsid, Islamic Political Thought
In some studies on the first centuries of the history of Islam, it is claimed that there was a disagreement between the caliph and Islamic scholars (‘ulamā) over the declaration and conduct of the war (jihād), that the Islamic scholars who swarmed to the borders for jihād because of their asceticism and the volunteer warriors for the faith under their command had no relation with the caliphate, that this tension resulted in the passing of the leadership of war and even religious authority from the caliphs to these ascetic-warriors who were also had~th scholars. In this study, it is argued that historical data are not sufficient to make such an assumption, that there is no dispute between the two sides about declaration and conduct of war, but on the contrary. Islamic scholars made certain revisions in the doctrine of jihād, taking into account the political conjucture, in other words, the need of state.