Muallâ Uydu Yücel

Keywords: Kuman, Kıpcak, Igor Saga, Russian, Gök-Türk, Polovetsi, History


The Kuman - Kıpcak, who lived at steppes on the north of Black Sea, and The Russian, who began a struggle to obtain domination in this geography and were moving towards becoming a strong nation, has a neighborhood relation for about two and a half centuries. Especially the Russian was obliged to leave the whole southern steppes to the Kuman - Kıpcak after 1054. The Russian tried to obtain amity of the Kuman in order to keep them in peace and on the other hand, they tried their best against this strong tribe. The reason for keeping them in peace is that they had always requested their help for their infighting. In this period from 1054 to 1250, the Kuman always beat the Russian except for a few wars. The Kuman progressing against and gaining lands forced the Russian to take some precautions. The most important of these precautions was the Russian and Knyaz combined and worked together. One of the wars, which the Russian won by getting combined, was the war in 1184. However, Ivor Svyatoslaviç, Novgorod - Seversk Knyaz, who did not participate in this war with his own will, became jealous of the success achieved and wanted to obtain such a victory in 1185. But this time, the Kuman did not give the opportunity to the Russian, who had caught them as unprepared in 1184, and crushed the Russian and Igor. Subject of Igor Saga is the mentioned wartime and considered as the first example of the national Russian literature. There have been numerous scientific arguments in Russia about originality of the saga, however men of letter considered the fact at the Russian point of view and evaluated it. But the saga has two important points for the Kuman. First, it clearly shows the impact of the Kuman on the Russian and second, this saga makes the Kuman name and strength remain for ages, that is; eternalizes the Kuman strength.