Diplomatic Relations between Mamluk and Ilkhanate States
Keywords: Mamluk, Ilkhanate, Diplomacy, envoys, letters
Throughout the history, diplomacy has been a decisive factor in inter-states relations. Wars and peace came out according to the diplomatic processes. In this sense, diplomatic documents are among the most important sources to determine the struggle and aims of the existence of the states. Mamluk and Ilkhanate were two states that struggled for dominance in the region, where is called Middle East today, and they determined the destiny of a large area from the Caspian Sea to Nile River and from Black Sea to Yemen. While the Islam world was shattered because of the Crusades and Mongol invasions, a political atmosphere at which mighty and infl uential emirs could be sultans emerged in Egypt and Syria. As the Ilkhanates , as descendants of Cenghis Khan, were keeping the traditional Mongol diplomacy with threat and frightening, Mamluks developed a new politic by re-settling the Caliphate based on defending the Muslims. Mamluks, with their original political organization, carried out successful defensive wars against the Ilkhanate and diplomatic relations changed in time; and hostile relations resulted in the equality based political relations. Eventually peace was achieved. In this study, I will try to analyze the change of the diplomatic relations between Mamluk and Ilkhanate states through envoy sending and letters and to reveal the foreign policy of these states.