Ertan Gökmen

Keywords: Abdülhamid II, Ottoman, Mine Privileges, (1878-1899)

Abstract

Ottoman State gave a lot of privileges and permissions for industrial investments to the citizens and companies of native and foreign countries in the second half of the 19 th century. The state also gave a lot of privileges for mines with the changing periods to native and foreign investors. According to the notebook published by the Ministry of Forest, Mine and Agriculture, one hundred thirty three mine privileges were given between the 1878-1899 during the reign of Abdülhamid II. The mines mentioned in this notebook were those: Chromius, lead mixed with silver, lead-copper and antimony, boracite, mineral water, coal, coal daubed with pitch, emery, iron, mercury, petroleum gauze, scoria, zinc and arsenic. The mine priviliges were given to the citizens of Ottoman State, German, English, French, Italian, Greek, American, Austrian, Hungarian and Russian. Most Of the privileges were given to the citizens of Ottoman State, English, French, and German and the citizens of other countries followed them. Some citizens of these countries had privileges alone and some of them got those privileges by getting two or more partnerships. These mine priviliges were given in different periods. One hundred four mines for the period of ninety nine years, one mine for the period of seventy five years, nineteen mines for the period of sixty years, one mine for the period of fifty five years, five mines for the period of fifty years and one mine for the period of fifteen years were given to privileges. Some of mine privileges were given to some companies such as; The Borax Company Limited, Balya Karaydın Şirketi, İskenderun Gaz Madeni Şirketi, Karasu Madeni Şirketi, and Kesendire Madeni Şirket-i Osmaniyesi.