ISSN: 0041-4255
e-ISSN: 2791-6472

Murat Keçi̇ş

Keywords: Byzantium, Northwest Anatolia, Xlllth-XIVth Century


Although human culture, in general, is an outcome of the relations between people and their environment, the İmpact of geography is more evident on nomadic societies in more specifıc ways. This impact throughout history has functioned at a basic level in terms of general tendencies, correlativity and continuity in socio­economic, cultural and political fıelds. In this regard, it is generally accepted that roads have political, economic, military, cultural, and historical roles in the medieval period. In this article, rather than suggesting that geographical factors are the primary determinants of the history of Northwestern Anatolian region, it will be argued that without an understanding of the natura) environment of the area occupied by a given community, it is impossible to understand the history of the region as a whole. We will thus demonstrate the importance of natural surroundings as one of the important historical determinants in the case of North Anatolian geography; and we will attempt to reveal the region's commercial and military roads used in 13th and 14th centuries in the light of a detailed analysis of all available contemporary sources.