The Karakalpak Rebellion Against The Khive Khan (1855-1856)
Keywords: Karakalpak Rebellion, Khive Khan, History
Before they moved into the Harezm region, the Karakalpaks lived first in Sirderya and then in the lands of the Kazakh khanate. Although they later agreed to live under Khive rule when they migrated to the Harezm region to escape Kazakh oppression, the heavy taxes levied by the Khive khans led the Karakalpaks to rebel. The most important of these uprisings was the Karakalpak Rebellion of 1855-1856. This rebellion was led by a Karakalpak named Ernazar Alaköz. In his struggle for an independent Karakalpak Khanate, Ernazar Han enlisted the aid of the Zarlık Khan of Genghis Khan ancestry. During this struggle he also received assistance from many other Karakalapk, Kazakh, Turkmen and Uzbeks begs. However, due to his use of clever politics, Seyid Muhammad Rahim Khan, who had risen to the Khive throne in 1855, succeeded in quelling the Karakalpak Rebellion, even though he had a difficult time doing so. By promising them titles and gifts Seyid Muhammed Rahim Khan tricked some of the begs into abandoning the rebellion; he then used his own force to kill those begs who remained in the rebel force. The 1855-1856 uprising led by Karakalpak Ernazar Alaköz was a response to the severe economic hardships imposed by the Khive khanate and by their constant imposition of taxes. This rebellion occupies an important place in Karakalpak history and Ernazar Alaköz is considered by the Karakalpaks to be a national hero. After this date the Karakalpak people did not attempt to enter solely or to lead such a powerful rebellion and they lived for many long years under the rule of the Khive Khanate.