Montenegro Military Operation of 1862 and its Results
Keywords: Montenegro, Ottoman Empire, 19th Century
The Montenegrin, wild people of forests, with whom no one was interested in apart from a few explorers until the mid 19th Century, were included into the international agenda all of a sudden, following the Paris Peace Treaty. The Montenegrins clearly declared to the world that they wanted to enlarge their independence and territory. However, the greatest obstacle was the Ottoman Empire they belonged to. After the rejection of their wish, The Montenegrins attempted to gain their independence by resorting to use of force. They organized continuous attacks on the Ottoman soil from 1857 onwards, benefiting from the rebellions that occurred in Bosnia Herzegovina. Reluctant to destroy the positive ambiance following the Paris Peace Treaty, the Ottoman Empire did not take the necessary precautions against these attacks which caused the death of thousands of people. However, by 1862, it was realized that the attacks would not stop unless a military operation was carried out and finally the Ottoman military forces entered into Montenegro. The Western great powers intervened as usual and the Ottoman military forces were stopped 16 kms away from Cetinje. The Scutary Treaty, in which boundaries were defined by ambassadors and which was never applied, was signed between the two sides. The Montenegro Military operation and its aftermath is a typical example of the policy formation by the Ottoman Empire depending on the great powers as well as a good example of the collapse of such policies. However, the Ottoman Empire, will continuously follow this politics until the Berlin Congress and will have to pay dearly for this.