The Emergence of the Early Principalities and the Tribal Confederations in Anatolia (1071-1175)
M. Said Polat
Keywords: Turkey, Principalities, History
In search of a place to settle, Turkomans, mounting a constant westward advance, began to conduct raids into Asia Minor at the turn of the 11th century. By the year 1080, Turkomans under the leadership of independent princes (beg) had obtained control of nearly the whole of the peninsula. The process of nomadization of the settled and traditional agrarian society through the inclusion of a large population of transhumants ruled by custom and pragmatism became completed. As an outcome of this social change, a political change occurred. The centralized bureaucratic structure of the peninsula was replaced by the formation of a tribal administration under the begs. A tribal confederation soon came into existence under the leadership of one of the princes, Kutalmış oğlu Süleyman, who had assumed control over the surrounding principalities. Starting in 1071, this process continued until 1175 when a critical transformation took place in the political structure.