From Struggle to Surrender: Sadık Tore during the Defense of Turkestan (1860-1877)
Keywords: Sadik Tore, Sultan Kenesari, Kazakhs, Khanate of Khokand, Khanate of Khiva, Emirate of Bukhara, Tsarist Russia, Turkestan
The invasion of the Kazak, Khive, Hokand khanates and Bukhara emirates by Tsarist Russia completed almost in two centuries. In this period, while some of the people voluntarily accepted Russian citizenship by considering their economic and political interests, a large part of them gave a struggle for independence against the Russian invasions of the Turkish countries. Middle jüz Cossacks, emirate of Bukhara, Khokand and Khiva khanates were forced to accept Russian supremacy because of the military operations. Amongst those who opposed these operations on Kazakh provinces and Turkestan khanates, there were those who individually attracted attention. Sultan Kenesari Kasimoglu, who wanted to be the leader of the Kazakhs, is the most important of them. Kenesari, who brought together the Kazakhs and organized them, has shown a resistance example which is still narrated today. Since Kenesari's determination was not visible on all the Cossacks, this resistance became fruitless following his death. However, Sadik Tore, one of his sons, exhibited at this time his father's resistance on the Kazakh territory during the invasion of the Turkestan khanates. In this study, it will be explained firstly the struggle of a Kazakh young man from a noble family who showed resistance unexceptionally in every inch of the ground of Turkestan territories against invasion by using the records of Sadik Tore, written out by his brother Ahmet Kenesari and it will also be emphasized the reasons why the different Turkish khanates consistently worked together with Sadik Tore. This study, will end with the surrender of Sadik Tore to the Russians and his death.