Domination and Disobedience on the Instance of Shah Abbas I and Sayinkhani Turkmens
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi, Tarih Bölümü, Afyonkarahisar/ TÜRKİYE
Keywords: Safavid State, Sayinkhani Turkmens, Siyah-pushan, Astarabad, Shah Abbas, Faridun Khan
Sayinkhani Turkmens residents of the Khorezm region emigrated from Khorezm to the coast of Atrek and Goorgan rivers in the period of Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasb. Turkmen societies were traditionally divided into tribes named il-el and ruled by chieftains with the title of Khan, Aqsaqal (White Beard), and Onbegi. Their relations with the Safavid State were limited to the paying taxes for cultivated lands or usage pasture. Sometimes they were given as escort to Khorezmian princes taken refuge to Safavid Shahs. Sayinkhani (also known as) Yaqa Turkmens did not see themselves as one group of Safavid and lived a semi-independent life. Therefore Turkmens disagreed with Qizilbash governors appointed to Astarabad and considered themselves as the possessor of state. They rebelled against to Astarabad governors because of heavy tax payments and unfair administration. Caused from their dissatisfaction, rebellions began in the reign of Shah Tahmasb and continued for a long periods.
Sayinkhani rebellions mostly took place during the reign of Shah Abbas II. He tried to overcome these revolts by military interventions and innovations in the local administration system. The campaigns of Shah were called in the Safavid chronicles as Khorasan campaigns. The local government was able to cope with the Turkmen revolts when Faridun Khan was appointed in Astarabad, so Shah’s direct intervention ended. Ghulam governors loyal to the Shah was appointed to Astarabad with the beginning period of the governance of Faridun Khan. Thus the desire for change of Astarabad people occurred only at the origin of the rulers. Safavid State did not alter the struggle methods with Turkmen rebellions and not seriously questioned the problems of people.