Zeki Salih Zengi̇n

Keywords: Middle East, Jerusalem, Medina, Ottoman State, World War I

Abstract

The reform initiatives have been regularly maintained in the Ottoman State's administration, finance, law and education fields particularly since the Reform [Tanzimat] era. Right after the Reform era, the state faced significant internal and external issues including maintaining its political unity. In such conditions, the modernization and dissemination policies in education were also regarded as an instrument for the national unity. Since 19th century, there were a political separation demands and attempts in the areas where a dense Arab population in the Middle East region. The westerners' schools and missionary activities in the region effectively influenced these separation activities. In the II. Abdulhamid and the Second Constitutional periods, the policies and the education initiatives aimed developing the region as well as to keep the Arab population under the Ottoman sovereignty by providing extensive provisions and cultural rights. In order to achieve these goals, the Saladin Ayyubid Islamic Complex was opened in Jerusalem and The Madrasa of Kulliya was planned to open in Medina. The objectives, curriculum administrative and structures of these secondary and higher institutions were similar with the reform activities of madrassas in the Second Constitutional period. Moreover, opening of these institutions has an important role in order to review some opinions about Ottoman's policies in the Middle East during the World War I.