Turkish Tribes Settled in Fergana According to lslarnic Authors (IXth-Xllth Centuries)
Keywords: Medieval Age, Fergana, Turkish Tribes, Kyrghyz, Central Asia
Fergana Valley is known to have been the settlement of many races since very old times. Researches show that among these ethnic groups, there had been Turks since tlıe time of Usuns; there, they sustained their ethnic identities and expanded their borders. This ethnic process gained pace during the time between 9th and 12th century, especially during time of Karakhanid, which resulted in turkification ofthe region and strengthening of Turkish language. As to the ethnic structure of Fergana Valley; a part of settlers of the district is formed by Persians. However, the ethnic groups were not purely Persian; tlıe district was mostly resided by urbanite and peasant Muslim Turks who settled there consecutively during Turkish sovereignty and then converted into lslam. Moreover, this agricultural region was surrounded by semi-nomadic Turkish tribes who lived on the foothills of Alay, Turkestan and Catkal Ranges ete. and these semi-nomadic tribes had close cultural relations with settled population for years. From the information we have, it can be deduced that such Turkish tribes as Karluk, Kirghiz, Yimek, Ezgis, Yabaku, Yagma, Cigil, Ilak alongwith ethnic groups with Persian origin formed the total population of Fergana. However, political sovereignty was held by Karluks who had ethnic and cultural superiority. As it can be observed in ali over the places of Mavera un-nehr, especially in Fergana, Sas, Ilak and Usrusana which are located on the eastern side of the region, Turks were mixed witl1 tribes of Persian origin but Turks were majority. This condition naturally facilitated the conquest of the region by Karakhanid and led the region to be completely turkicized in terms oflanguage and culture.