The remains of a human skeleton had been sent to our Institute for study were found in an earth excavation made by villagers, in a valley which is near to a village and located on the side of the Korkuteli-Tefenni road, in the province of Antalya. The human skeletal remains which were sent to us for study, probably belonging to the Byzantine Period.

Korkuteli-Tefenni skeleton is represented by a calvaria, right half of lower jaw, a cervical vertebra, a lumbar vertebra and right femur. See Fig. I.

In the calvaria of this individual the basilar suture (synochondrosis sphenooccipitalis) is completely closed. The proximal and distal epiphyses of the right femur have united with the diaphysis. In the right half of lower jaw, with exception of the wisdom tooth, all the permanent teeth have erupted[1]. Even though, in the right half of lower jaw, the third molar has not yet erupted, the condition of the basilar suture and the epiphyses of the femur show that this skeleton belongs to an adult individual.

The pars obelica of the sagittal suture have been obliterated on both the endocranial and ectocranial aspects of the calvaria. On the ectocranial surface, the partes bregmaticas of the sagittal and coronal sutures have been started to erase but, on the endocranial surface, these partes are still open. The partes stephanicas of the coronal suture have been erased on both the internal and external surfaces of the calvaria. On the other hand, the partes complicates of the coronal suture are open on both the ectocranial and endocranial aspects of the calvaria. In addition to these, sutura lamdoidea, sutura sphenopartietalis, sutura sphenosquamosa, sutura squamosa, sutura parietomastoidca and, sutura occipitomastoidea are open on both external and internal surfaces of the calvaria. Therefore, this skeleton belongs to an individual of about 25-28 years of age.

The morphological and biometric characteristics of the calvaria, mandibula and, femur show that, this skeleton belongs to a male individual.

The measurements of the calvaria are shown in Table I. This calvaria is mesocranic according to Garson’s classification[2]. In the calvaria of this individual the basion-bregma height-length index is chamaekran. The prion-bregma height-length index is orthokran that is, in the middle group. The basion-bregma height-breadth and porion - bregma height-breadth indices are both tapeinokran. The transverse fronto-parietal index is stenometop, that is, the forehead is relatively narrow. In this calvaria from Korkuteli-Tefenni, the frontal arc is longer than the occipital arc and, the occipital arc is longer than the parietal arc. The mean thickness of the left parietal bone (5 mm.) is medium.

The cranial capacity of this individual, calculated from Pearson’s[3] formula by using the porion-bregma height, is 1383.08 c.c. The cranial capacity again calculated from Pearson’s formula, but by using the basion-bregma height, is 1388.10 c.c. According to Sarasin’s calassification the cranial capacity of this individual is in the euen-kephal (medium) category for men[4].

The form of this calvaria in norma verticalis is ellipsoide. The temporal fullness of the calvaria is above the average. In this calvaria the parietal bosses are medium. The development of the glabella and brow ridges is above the average. The forehead, which is of sub-medium height, shows a slight slope. In this calvaria the frontal bosses are weak. The metopic suture is completely obliterated and there is a very slight sagittal elevation (crest) on os frontale.

In norma lateralis, the occiput is well-curved. The occipital torus, which is mound-shaped, is strong. The form of the pterion is seen to be H shaped. The external auditory meatus shows an ellipsoide shape. The supramastioid crest is very strong and the mastoid process is well developed.

The vertebral indices of Korkuteli-Tefenni cervical vertebra and lumbar vertebra are in ventro-sphenocentric category. (Table IV).

The right femur of the Korkuteli-Tefenni skeleton is platymeric. (Table V). That the index plastricus is over 100 shows that the linea aspera is well developed.

The stature calculated from right femur of the Korkuteli-Tefenni skeleton by Pearson’s[5] formula (Table VI), is 170.23 centimeters, that is in tall stature category accepted for men.

The morphological and biometric charecteristics of the Korkuteli Tefenni skeleton show that, this individual represents a mixture of Nordic and Alpine types.


  1. In the right half of lower jaw, with exception of the first and second molars, all the other permanent teeth have been lost after death.
  2. Martin-Sailer. 1957, vol I, p. 488.
  3. Martin-Sailer. 1957, vol I, p. 473.
  4. Martin-Sailer. 1957, vol I, p. 470.
  5. Martin-Sailer. 1957, vol I, p. 595.

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