ISSN: 0041-4255
e-ISSN: 2791-6472

Sebahattin Bayram, Salih Çeçen

Keywords: Slavery, Ancient Anatolia, Document, Kültepe Tablets

The oldest written documents of Anatolia, the so-called Kültepe tablets, which at present number more than 20.000, mostly deal with commercial subjects. Neverthless these documents also give information on political, social, legal and geographical facts of that area and period (ca. 19th century B.C.), a few of them directly but most indirecdy. Some documents provide us with at times detailed information on sla١'ery and slave sales during that age. After earlier studies of single documents, recently these texts were studied and evaluated as a group and analysed statistically by Hecker[1] and in particular by Kienast[2]. Still later Sever[3] studied 8 new documents dealing widi slaves.

In this contribution we publish 13 new documents in copy, transliteration, translation and with commentary. In addition we draw on 10 more documents as far as they relate to our subject. Evaluating the information of the prêtions publications, we pay special attention to new or interesting data contained in our texts.

We first present tables of the prices for which the slaves, but also some persons not explicitly qualified as such, were sold and of the amounts which had to be paid when the persons sold were (re)claimed or redeemed.

Sale prices:


person sold

sale price in shekels of silver


anı turn

20 shekels of siher

kt s/k 22


20 .................



30 ..................



45 .................



60 .................

kta/k 1134


60 .................

kt a/k 1277


30 .................

kt a/k 952


30 shekels of refined siher

kt v/k 65


37,5 shekels of siher



39 .................

kt a/k 898


45 ..................

kt a/k 933


60 ..................

kt 79/k 2


117,5 ......................

no. 11


33 .................



60 ................



15 ................

kt 88/k 1027


10 ................



20 ................

Prices to be paid in case of (re)claim or redemption:


person sold

sale price

price tn case





of reclaim




40 shekels of silver

40 sh. of siher


no. 2


60 .................

240 """


kt t/k 32





kt a/k 898





kt a/k 898

wardum 45 shekels of silver

90 shekels of silver 1/2


(if wardum pays his price)



child 33 shekels of silver

45 "

"" 1/1,35

kt v/k 125

family -

60 "


The texts contain interesting information institution of slavery which we summarize.

on slave

sales and the

Conditions for regaining freedom

In kt a/k 898 (Sever, no.2) Istar-baSti bought Sikuwa for 45 shekels of silver from Subili, son of Hanuwa. If the creditor or somebody else claims Sikuwa back, he shall pay the original purchase price. If the slave himself wants to become free, he has to pay its double, 90 shekels. In kt v/k 65 (Sever, no.7) the native Inar, sold for 37,5 shekels of silver, can redeeme himself by paying the same amount. In kt v/k 125 (Sever, no.8), where the native woman Labarsa sold Subianika and her daughter to an Assyrian, ASSur-bel-awatim, for an unstated amount those sold, have to pay Labarsa 1 mina of silver if they raise a claim in order become to free. Other examples are Kienast, nos.11 and 12.

Conditional sales

In kt v/k 65, it is stated that the child Inar was sold for the price of 37.5 shekels of silver by his elder brother, Ha؛ui and his mother, Kudida under the condition that if he did not behave well in the house of Tarmana who had bought him, he would be taken back at the same price or otherwise would say as a chattel slave of Tarmana. In kt a/k 933 (Sever, no.3), it is stated that Etar-malak was sold to Enlil-bani by Imdilum for 1 mina of refined silver for two years. At the end of this period Enlil-bani would pay back the same amount to Imdilum in order to get his slave back, otherwise the slave become Imdilum's property. Kienast, no.37 is another example of a conditional sale.

Slaves taken as pledges

There are many examples of the taking of male or female slaves or senants as pledges for debts. For example, in kt 88/k 306, which is a legal document concerning a conflict bet١veen two Ass١٦ ians, it is recorded that as security for his unstated claim Su-Suen took from his debtor, A5Sur-nada his two donkeys, a female slave and a servant as pledges. It is also stated that Su- Suen would take these in case he suffered damage. Kt a/k 1163 records that for the 43 shekels of refined silver which Ela gave to Ili-emuqi as be'ulatum in Ashur, Umrm-tabat, the female slave of the latter, was taken as a pledge. In kt a/k 1224 it is recorded that since Usur-؛a-A5؛ur has a claim of 36 shekels of refined silver on Ennam-ili, Ili-iddin was taken as pledge. When the debtor pays the money, the slave will be returned. Other published examples of taking slaves as pledges are Kienast p.93, 3 fig and p.99, 2 y.

Slaves as part of be'ulatum

Our text no.5 records that among the goods belonging to Basa, the daughter of Idna-AAsur, given to Adad-rabi, the son of Kikazu, as be'ulatum[4], also a slave girl figures. It is for the first time that a slave is part of a be'ulatum.

Sale of one of its members by a family

There are some documents indicating that, presumably because of financial problems, families had to sell some of its members. In our text no.l 1 the native child IlaliSkan was sold to Tep٠ala for 33 shekels of silver by his mother Wanialka and by Kanakana, daughter of Sezur, whose relation to IlaliSkan is unknown. The text stipulates that the seller can get her child back by paying 45 shekels of silver, or 35% more. In kt v/k 65, mentioned above, it is recorded that a child, called Inar, was sold for 37,5 shekels of silver by his mother, Kudida, and his elder brother, Hasui. Kienast no. 17 also deals with such a case.

Sale of whole families

For this type of transaction no.10 is a good example. It records (in line 2 of the envelope) that 1 mina of silver was paid for Subiahsu and his wife Kabzia to Zaha, the brother of the rabi simmiltim, by Puzur-Assur. Line 11 of the tablet (line 13 of the envelope), reveals that the children of the married couple sold, were included in the sale. Kt v/k 125 (Sever, no.8), already discussed above, records that Labarsa sold Subianika, the wife of Habia,

  1. See for the be'ulatum: Kienast. JCS 41 (1989), pp. 86-95 and AKT I p.22 on line 10. together with her daughter s ika to Aur-bel-awatim. Texts nos.18 and 37 in Kienast are other examples of this type of sale.

Status and role of wardum

The Akkadian wardum may have two meanings. It designates not only "slave", but is also used for "servant, officer" e.g. when a person is called a wardum of his king or god, or calls himself, humbly "your wardttm". In our text no.8, Turam-ili, against whom a suit is brought by Kasuka, is designated as "wardum of the house(hold) of Kura". Tiramili is ready to pay the silver after he has got the records. Tlris could indicate a status of servant rather than one of chattel slave. In AKT 1,33 (Sever, no.1) Istar-pilah, designated as wardum,"took 40 shekels of silver belonging to Susa as his wages" and hence he may have been a "servant". This is also likely for kt a/k 1112, where Ennam-ili, wardum of Idiabum owes a debt of 2 minas of silver to u؟ur-؛a- Aur and has to pay interest if he does not pay within 15 weeks. See also tire text studied as Kienast p.95 1 d.

Anatolian officials occuring in the slave and house sale documents

In the texts published here and in the other documents used or discussed, we meet various Anatolians, who are identified by their titles or professions. Since some of the texts are records of court cases, the question arises whether in these texts they perform an official ftmction. In other documents they occur as private individuals and their titles or professions are mentioned to identify and to distinguish them from others, perhaps also because they were commonly known with their titles. If a text mentions a man with his title there are thre possibilities:

  1. PNttitle, to identify the person instead of DUMU PN or ahi PN. Such identifications may occur wih all persons, witnesses, sellers, buyers etc.: it does not imply an official function.
  2. Title or indication of some function, among those persons who miglrt "come back concerning ..."(assumi ... tuarum). There we usually have no PN"s but only a designation like tusinnum, not a particular man or official, but a term which defines his role, perhaps his relation to the seller, the slave sold etc. Similar is upatinnum, whatever that may be.
  3. Persons who occur in an official capacity, e.g. in the so-called "notarization"

iqqâti...rubâ’im/'rabi simmiltim; they authorize or approve the transaction. The rabi mahîrim,"market overseer", may play a comparable role in slave sales.

We present in alphabetical order the tides or professions which occur in the slave or house sale texts:

alahhinnum,"miller, major domo"

The tide occurs in Kienast no.23 as the title of a man, named ASed. In some texts he has a function in collecting cereals and money[5].

rabi alpâtim,"chief of the cowherd" (?)

The tide belongs to the witness Kulakula in Kienast no.16:21 f., and is translated as "Oberrinderhirt".

banillum,"police" (?)

Occurs in kt a/k 952 (Sever, no.4). It is not frequently used and in the dictionaries it is translated as "police" cautiously.

rabi ezzi/esi, "?"

This is the tide of AluthuharSa, who gave testimony in Kienast no. 16, where it is translated as "Oberziegenhirt, Oberster der Baume".


Occurs in Kienast no.38. See for other texts where this tide is used and for the suggestion that it might be a personal name: Bilgiç-Bayram, AKT II no.2:10 and Çeçen, Dissertation no.18:19.

gtibabtum,"(high) priestess"

Used in no.3, as qualification added to a personal name.

rabi kalbaam,"the one in charge of dogs"

This title occurs in kt v/k 65 (Sever, no.7). It was also examined by Gunbatt[6] who explained it as "probably the chief of the people taking care of the dogs in the palace", which would mean a functionary of the palace. The person is recorded as a witness and does not figure in an official capacity.

rabi mahirim, "clrief of the market, market overseer"

The title occurs in Kienast no. 15:2, which deals with the sale of pigs, and in no.29:5 which deals with the sale of a slave. It occurs also in kt s/k 53:3, which deals with the sale of wool, as the title of Pirwala.

rabi nappahim,"chief of the blacksmiths"

This title occurs in Kienast no.14 as simple nappahum,"blacksmith" and in no.37 as rabi nappahim. The persons in question do not act in an official capacity.

rabi passure,"chief of the tables"

Title of witness Kulakula in Kienast no.16:20" and translated as "Truchsess".

rabi re'¡,"chief of the shepherds"

This title occurs in no.2 and belongs to Peruwa. He performs no official function in the uansaction.

rahi simmiltim,"chief of the staircase" (?)

The designation ''brother of the rabi simmiltim" occures in no.10, where it only serves to identify an Anatolian, as is the case in TCL 21,254 (Kienast, no.37), instead of the common "son of PN". An official function of the rabi simmiltim is attested in Kienast, no.18, where he occurs together with the ruler (rubaiim) in the socalled "notarization" of the transaction iqqati ... "under the authority of ...".This is also the case in Kienast, no.9.

٥ C.GunbatU, Kultepe Metinlerinde Ge؟en iki Yen؛ Unran, Xth Turkish Congress of History (Ankara;1986), p.465.

rabi sabim,"commander of the soldiers" (?)

This is the title of Hanu, which occurs in kt v/k 65. He is mentioned among the upatinnum"s of rabi sikkatim. Hence the rabi sikkatim is Iris superior. This title also occurs in KKS 21 (Kienast, no.23) as one of the upatinnums’ of Ad who is an alahhinnum. It shows that the alahhinnum is superior to the upatinnum and the rabi sabim.

rabi sukkallim,"head of tire viziers"

Occurs in kt v/k 152, studied by Donbaz and VeenhoF[7], where the title identifies a witness in line 4. According to lines 1317, the price for the Anatolian slave. Ad, was paid to the upatinnum of the rabi Sukkallim, and lines 19f. mention "gentlemen of the upatinnum of the rabi sukkallim". The rabi Sukkallim himself sealed the record because he somehow represented or was linked with the sellers. The title is difficult to translate, since "great vizier" would be Sukkallum rabium; rabi Sukkallim perhaps means "head of the viziers".

tusinnum,"redeemer" (?)

Occurs frequently as one of the persons that might raise claims concerning the slave sold, see Kienast, nos. 5,7,9,19,29 and 32. We do not know whether persons in question acted in an official capacity or not. It occurs also in kt k/k 35:13 (tablet) and 16 (case) and in Kienast, nos. 16 and 22, all dealing with house sales, as one of the persons that might "come back" on the transaction, "because of the house".

tusinnum Sa rabi sikkatim, (?)

Iu kt a/k 1263:4f. by Gunbattr, he apparently ranged below and belonged to the rabi sikkatim. He also occurs as one of the upatinnums’ of the rabi sikkatim.

upatinnum, (?)

Occurs in kt v/k 152[8] as upatinnum Sa rabi Sukkallim,"the upatinnum of the viziers" and in Kienast, no.23 (KKS 21). In the first text, the lines 15f.,

the title is used of the persons selling the sla١'e, and in lines 19-21 of the persons to refund the buyer Tarmana when the sla١’e is claimed by a third party.


No.Lkt 90/k 120

Nu-hu-sa-tum a-ma-sû

This is a contract about the sale of a female slave between two Assyrians. The buyer is a woman and it is stipulated that in case of ١٦ndication the sale price shall be refunded.


Ku-m-ba-na-a i-di-nu-si[9]sa Nu-hu-äa-ti-im

Nu-hu-؛a-tum a-na

i-mi-im i-di-in؛؛

a-lim؛-û A-ab

2/3 ma-na 5 GiN KU.BABBAR ta-âs-fji'1-ul û am-tam

Ku-ru-ba-na û


ma-ra Ab-sa-1 im


ta-as-a-am su-ma

ma-ma-na-a a-na

am-tim[10]û ma-ri-äa[11]i-tù-wa-ar

2/3 ma-na 5 GIN KU.BABBAR


a-na Ab-sa-1 im

ur؛-٩al IGI E-na-A-a؛-i

DUMU Dan-i-li IGI Me-ra-li

<DUMU> En-um-A-sur

٦Nuh(u)satum gave his female slave Kurubana, <the slave> of Nuh(u)؛atum, Nuh(u)satum sold (her). 6And (Mrs.) Ab-sallim paid 45 shekels of silver, and Ab-sallim bought the female slave Kurubana and her child. 12If anyone claims the female slave and her child, he shall pay 45 shekels of silver to Ab-؛allim. 16Before Ennam-Assur, son of Dan-ili, before Merali, <son of> Ennum-Assur.

L. 1,3,4: Nu-hu-sa-tum must be the name of a male person according to the text. But Nu-uh-Sa-tim in BIN 6,104:2 is female. The name must be derived from nuhsu: CAD N II p.320b; AHw p.801b.

L. 2,9: Ku-ru-ba-na could be an Akkadian name and be analysed as Kurub-Anna, but it may as well be native.

L. 10,13: The word mer'um,"son", rarely occurs as mar'um in Old Assyrian.

L. 12: mammana is a variant of mamman"somebody, anybody", cf.CAD M I p.200b; AHw p.601a.

No.2: kt 88/k 990

This is a document about the sale of a native woman by Peruwa to the wife of an Assyrian. Whoever (re)claims the slave girl shall pay the fourfold of the purchase price to the new owner.

Obv. 1. 1 ma-na KU.BABBAR si-i[m]

Za-pi-za-pi A-na-na

a-sa-at E-na-ah-DINGIR

is-ti Pe-ru-wa

5. GAL re-i-im

DUMU Ta-pu-sa

ta-as-a-am-؛i lu Pè-ru-wa



lu ma-ma-an


a-na Zi-pi-zi-pi


4 ma-na KÙ.BABBAR <a-na>



A-na-na i-sa-qal


11 niina of silver is the price of Zapizapi, Anana the wife of Enah-ili bought her (for it) from Peruwa, the chief of the shepherds, the son of Tapusa. 8If anyone, either Peruwa or anybody else, reclaims Zipizipi he shall pay 4 minas of silver <to> Anana. 15?

L. 2,11: The text makes it clear that Zapizapi and Zipizipi refer to the same person. One might compare Zi-BE-zi-BE, the wife of Assur-amaram, daughter of AAsur-beli in EL no.276.

L. 2,14: The name Anana occurs also in BIN 4,165:1,2,3; Liv. 8:14; CCT 5,216:6 and AKT 1,76:2 (tablet), 8 (case) as the wife of Idi-Adad.

L. 15: There are traces of erased writing on the reverse, but they offer no clue for the interpretation of this line.

Nr.3: kt n/k 1772

This document refers to the sale of a slave-girl belonging to an Assyrian household. It is a kind of quittance stating that a third person, Idi-Assur, has received the sale price in Kanis in the name of a daughter of the previous owner and seller, from the buyer, Kura. She hence promises not to raise any future claims.



KISIB Bu-kà-nim DUMU Su-Sti-en،؛ sa 1/3 ma-na KÙ.BABBAR sa-ru-pâ-am si-im GÉME٥m sa É Na-âp-li-is ki-ma

DUMU.MÎ Na-âp-li-is gug-ba-âb-tim

E. I-di-A-sur DUMU Ba-ba-lim

i-na Ka-ni-i؛ KU.BABBAR

Rev. ils-qe-u

10. DUMU.Mf Na-ap-li-is

a-na Ku-ra u-la


1Sealed by Bukanum, son of Su-Suen, to the effect that 1/3 mina of refind silver, the price of a female slave belonging to the household of Naplis, 5in the name of the daughter of Naplis, gubabtu-priestess, that Idi- Assur, son of Babalum took the money in Kanish. 10The daughter of Naplis shall not come back on Kura.

L. 7: The same persons occur in CCT 2,8:7.

Nr.4: kt 75/k 35

This is a personal memorandum recording the payment of silver to a person and the gift of an expensive piece of textile to the same person.

Obv. 1. 1/2 ma-na KU.BABBAR

a-na ؛i-im GEME

؛a Sa-ba-na-tim

as-qul 1 ku-ta-nam

5. SIG5 a-na


E. a-di-in

1I paid 1/2 mina of silver for the slave-girl of Sabanatum; I also gave 1 kutanu-textile of good quality to Sabanatum.

Nr.5: kt 76/k 2

A slave-girl figures among the items put at the disposal of an Assyrian as be'ulatum. We assume that he received the goods from the owner, a girl, to trade them which would imply the sale of the slave-girl.






1/3 ma-na 5 GIN KU.BABBAR 6TÙG.HI.A ku-tanu

2 GÛ 5 ma-na Jaap-tarn

1 am-tàm 4 pì-ri-kà-ni




1 GU 5 ma-na URUDU ma-sï-a-am

3 ema-ree


mì-ma a-nim




sa Ba-sà-a









a na ٥!M.GAL

DUMU Ki-kà-zu




a be a-lim adi in

IGI A-urma-lik


IGI ù-sur-pà-kà





AUrmiu ؛'DUMU[12]


25 اshekels of silver, 6 pieces of kutan»-textile, 2 talents 5 minas of wool, 1 female slave, 4 pfrikann (textiles, 1 talent 5 minas of purified copper, 3 black donkeys 9all this belonging to Basa, the daughter of Idna-Assur, I put at the disposal of Adad-rabi, son of Kikazu.l6Before Assur-malik, son of Liba; before Uu-paka, son of Puzurlstar; before Peruwa, son of As؛ur-(i)mitfi.

In the text: IGI

L. 10: The woman, a daughter of Idna-Assur, whose goods were given as be’ulatum, must be the same woman as the one in kt b/k 105[13],to whom 1/3 mina of silver was given as be’ulatum.

Nr.6: kt b/k 136 b, a

This text is a deposition by witnesses before karum Kanish. Their testimony deals with a disagreement about a slave belonging to an Assyrian, Ennum-A؛iur, taken and retained (as pledge) by Lulu. Lulu refuses to submit, as ruled by judges, to an oath, but instead promises to return the slave within one month. If not, he will pay Ennum-Assur ca. The double of purchase price, 81 shekels of silver.






En-um-A-äur a-na Lu-lu iş-ba-at-ni-a-ti-ma um-ma En-um-A-sur-ma a-na Lu-lu-ma ba-a-am



ma-la di-iu4 da-a-a-ni

GİR sa A-sur ta-am-a-am

um-ma Lu-lu-ma la a-ta-ma-a-kum

wa-ra-ad-kà a-di

wa-ra-ah u-ta-ra-kum



um-ma En-um-A-sur-ma

؛u-ma a-di wa-ra-ah



ÌRdl la tù-ta-e-ra-am

2/3 ma-na la 1 GIN KÙ.BABBAR



[Si]-im ÌRdlm



i-bİ4-si-ma 1 1/3 ma-na 1 GIN

KU.BABBAR ta-sa-qa-lam

um-ma Lu-lu a-hu Ha-da-a-ma


i؛-tu ha-mu-u؛-tim

20. ؛a dUTU-ba-ni u A-sur-is-[ti-k]al

<a-na a-wa-tim a-ni-a-tim>

ka-ru-um Ka-ni-is،٠٥٦

i-di-ni-a-ti-ma IGI GIR

؛a A-؛ur si-bu-ti-ni

ni-di٠in IGI dUTU-ba-ni

E. 25. DUMU A-ha-tim

L.E. IGI U-su-ra-nim

DUMU Ku-da-a

1Ennum-Aisur seized us (as witnesses) against Lulu. Ennum-Assur said to Lulu: 5"Come, swear to me by Ashur"s dagger in accordance with the verdict of judges!". 7Lulu answered: "I am not going to swear to you! I will return your slave to you within a month". 10Ennum-AS؛ur said: "If you have not returned my slave ,within a month, where the price of the slave was 39 shekels of silver, you will pay me 81 shekels of silver". 17Lulu, the brother of Hada, said: "I will pay (it) to you". 19From the week of Samas-bani and Assuris-[tikal|. <For this case>karuin Kanish gave us (as witnesses), and before the dagger of Ashur we gave our testimony. 24Before Samas-bani, son of Ahatum; before Usuranum, son of Kuda.


Obv. 1. KISIB dUTU-ba-ni DUMU A-ha-tim

KISIB U-su-ra-nim DUMU Ku-da-a

a-na a-wa-tim a-ni-a-tim

ka-ru-um Ka-ni-i؛“

5. i-di-ni-a-ti-ma IGI GIR

sa A-sur si-bu-ti-ni


Nr.7: kt n/k 1295

This deposition records a disagreement between Idi-Suen and Mannu- ki-ASsur about a slave which belonged to a certain Rabi-Assur, but whom Mannu-ki-Assur had seized because he would have brought him.

Obv. 1 .Ma-nu-ki-A-sur

IR ؛a GAL-A-sur is-ba-at-ma um-ma I-di-Su-eng-ma IR wa-si-ra-am um-ma M a-nu-ki-A-su r-m a

IR as-a-am u-la u-sa-ra-kum

um-ma I-di-Su-eng-ma

DUMU I-ba-a-ma IR



Rev. 15.

ma-sa-ku a-na-ku

IR u-ta-ra-kum su-ma IR la ap-qi-id-ku-um KU.BABBAR ma-la ta-as-qu-lu a-sa-٩a-la-kum a-na a-wa-tim

a-ni-a-tim ka-ru-um

Hu-ra-ma i-di-ni-a-ti-ma

IGI ؛u-ga-ri-a-e ؛a A-sur

si-bu-ti-ni ni-di-in



IR maahri ni



Ma-nu-ki-A-؛ur ana






ip-qi'-id IGI A-Sur-SA.T.J



DUMI, âu-Be-lim IGI Sâl-ma-A-sut



DUMI! En nanim



seized the slave of Rabi-Assur, but Idi-Suen said:

"Release the slave to me!". Mannıı-ki-Aâsur answered: "I liave bouglit the slave, I am not going to yield him to you!". 8ldi-Suen, son of Iba, said: Yield the slave to me! I take tlie responsibility, I will return the slave to you (later).

If I do not entrust the slave to you, I will pay to you as much as you paid (for the slave)". l٥For this case, kânımHurama gave US (as witnesses) and we gave our testimony before the dagger of ASSur. 2٥In our presence Mannu-ki- ASSur entrusted the slave to Idi-Suen. 23Before Assursadu'i, son of Sil-Belum; before Salma-ASsur, son of Ennanum.

L. 11: See for the meaning of masa’um Larsen,OACC (1976) p.256f.

Nr.8: kt 88/k 287

This testimony before the karum records a confrontation between a certain Turam-ili, "slave of Kura's household", and a certain Kasuka about a sum of silver, given to Turam-ili by an agent (tamkarum) and claimed by Kura. The situation seems to be that Turam-ili, a slave of the firm of Kura, had received money due to his boss by an agent of the latter. The action of Kasuka may imply that he had been authorized by Kura to collect this sum, either because he acted as Kura"s representative or because Kura had promised him that silver. Turam-ili is ready to pay if Kasuka submits written e١٢idence (naipiratum) which proves that he is entitled to the money. Turam-ili, though a slave, could act for his boss by collecting debts owed to him.

Obv. 1. Ka-su-ka a-na Tu-ra-mi-ili٥

IR sa E! Ku-ra is-ba-at-ni-a-ti-ma

um-ma Kà si'1-kà-ma



a-na Tiirami-ilij-ma



1 1/2 mana KUBABBAR



tam-ka-ru-um idina-kuni KUBABBAR Su-quul um-ma


3 naaSpi-ra-tim



Sa a-wilim bi^-lamma

KUBABBAR a-sa-qa-la-[kum]



[... .]-ma




ana a-wa-fim



aniatim ka-mum

Kani-is i-di-ni-a-ti-ma


؛ibutini nidi in


1 Kasuka took US

IGI I ku nim

(as witnesses) against Turam-ili, a slave of the house-(hold) of Kura. 3Kasuka said to Turam-ili: "Pay 1 1/2 mina of silver which the agent gave to you". 8Turam-ili answered: "Bring me the three records of gentleman (boss), then I will pay [you] the silver and I will satisfy you". 15For this case karum Kani؛ gave us (as witnesses) and we gave our testimony before the dagger of Assur. 20Before Amurru-bani, before Ikunum.

Nr.9: kt t/k 9

This is a memorandum in which a man, speaking in the first person, lists the payments he has made.

Obv. 1. 13 1/2 GIN KU.BABBAR a-na



a-na Sé-zu-ur as-٩ul

5. 4 GIN a-na belisu

sa '!’il-[1'1-] tù-ù asqiil

4 1/2 GIN a-na Is-ine-DINGIR às-qùl 6 GIN KÙBABBAR si-im se-im٠) sa É

10. Ta-ai'-ma-na nu-sé-؟i-a-ni

si-im IR

E. 3 GIN si-im sé-im'[14]

a-na na-pà-hi-im

Rev. às-qùl 11/2 GIN a-na

15. A-m-ba < 1 > là 1/4 GIN

a-àa-at I-na-a

1 la 1/4 GIN a-na Na-na-a

  1. la 1/4 GIN a-na Ku-là-na
  2. 1/2 GIN a-na sì-ini

20. GIG sa a-Ta-ar-kà-na-am

à.؛qùl 2 1/4 GIN a-na

UDU àsqùl i-nn-mì GA-ar-ù-lam


i-nu-mì ta-am-ri-.؟i-ni

E. 25. 1 it 1/4 GİN ag-mu-ur[15] 1/2 GİN ana

ki-ri-im i-nu-mî

L.E. A-na-na ta-am-ru-şû

astuul 2 1/4 GİN a-na

NINDA âsqûl

1؛ paid 13 1/2 sliekels of siler to Sabunahu, son of Kala; 6 shekels of silver to Sezur; 54 shekels (of silver) to the boss of Tutu; 1/2 4؟ shekels to Ime-il; 8ةshekels of silver, the price of barley, we took out of the house of Tarmana, (was) the price of a slave, which I paid to the blacksmith 3 sliekels (of silver) as price of the barley; 1/2ا4اshekels to Aruba; 3/4 shekel (to) the the wife of Ina; 3/4 shekel to Nana; 3/4 shekel to Kulana; ل9اpaid 2 1/4 shekels as price for wheat which was meant for Tar It an am. 2لاpaid 2 1/4 shekels for a sheep. 22when she took a ...., when she become ill, I spent 3/4 shekel. 25لpaid 1/2 shekel for a drink when Anana fell ill. 28j paid 2 1/4 shekels for bread.

L. 20: See for the various kinds of grain called arsatum, kibtum, se'um, uttatum and for their meaning the comments on AKT 1,7:24.

L. 22: GA-ar-û-lamis unclear for US.

Nr.10: kt a/k 805 b, a

The documerrts records that Zaira sold the rrative Subiahsu with his wife Kabzia and their son (1.11) to PuzurAâsur. The difficult lines 5-8 may indicate that Puzur-Assur Irad accjuired Subiahu before, but had rrot yet paid, or that Puzur-Aur owed Zaha a sum of money for some purchase and that Zaha instead claimed Subiahsu with his family, which made Puzur-Assur decide to pay his debts, so that he got Subiahsu back.


Obv. 1. 1 ma-na KU.BABBAR ٤i-im

Su-bi-a-ah-؛>u û Kâ-âbzi-a

u a-na Za-ha؛-i-ti؛-a



PuzurAiur iStuul



U[16] Zaha؛؛-be-el i>i-mi



i-na i-d-im

u i-ri-iÄ-ma؛-4-a-ah؛Su-b KUBABBAR àà-qù-ul uma ma-ma-an؛



a-na Su-bi4-a-ah-؛u



a-äi-tiu Ùmeere-Su



i-tù-ar Za-ha a-na PuzurAur u-ba-ab٤u-nu

IGI Ha-ra-a5-ta-AN



IGI Lu-ùh-ra-ahu

IGI Hanunu

IGI Hi-kà-i Za-ha

a-na Su-bia-ah-üu



la i-tù-a-ar

u KISIB Za-ha-a a-hu-û ra-bİ4 si-؛-KISIB Lu-ûh-ra-ah mi-ık-tim

KISIB Ha-a-a-bİ4 KISIB Ha-nu-nu

u؛-i-im Su-bİ4٠a-ah؛ 1 ma-na KÙ.BABBAR

i-ti-su؛-5 ù Kâ-âb-zi-a a

a-na Za-ha Puzu٢4-A-sur

i-mi-su؛ ٩û-ul Za-ha be-el-is

Rev. Su-bİ4٠a-ah-su i-na i-ti-im i-ri-is-ma Puzu٢4-A-sur

10. KÙ .BABBAR a-na Za-ha

٩û-ul su-ma ma-ma-an-؛i

a-na Su-bİ4-a-ah-su ù Kâ-âb-zi-a

u؛-u û me-er-e؛-i-ti؛-a

i-tû-ar Za-ha-a

15. û-ba-âb-su-nu

Za-ha-a a-na


Kâ-âb-zi-a a-si-ti-su

û me-er-e-su û-lâ i-tû-ar

L. 15f. and If. (of case): The personal names also occur in AKT 1,39:14- 16: IGI Luhrahsu radiu sa Harastai. Cf. Also kt 84/k 16:4: TUG sa Ha-ra-as-tal and in line 11: Ha-ra-as-ta-al. We hence believe that they are the same person and that HaraStan and Harastai are variant writings of the same name.

L. 1-3 (of case): HaraStAN, Luhrahsu and Zaha are the brothers of the rabi simmiltim, who is the crown prince and is highest authority after king and so probably the children of the king. In some documents, Anitta, the son and later successor of Pithana, occurs with the tide rabi simmiltim: TC 3,214a:19-22; OIP 27,1:1; rev.:2-3. In kt s/k 3:19-20: i-qa-u Pi-it-ha-na m-ba-im

A-ni-ta GAL si-ki-ti-[im], Anitta occurs alongside his father and ruler Pithana with the title rabi sikkitim.Çeçen assumes that the crown prince raised for kingship had to acquire experience first as rabi sikkitim, later as rabi simmiltim[17]. But not all rabi simmiltims’ are later attested as rubâ'um.

Nr.ll: kt 88/k 1003

This is a document about the sale of a native boy by his mother and by another woman whose relationship with the boy is unknown. It is stipulated that if a successful claim is raised for the boy, the sellers have to pay 45 shekels of silver instead of the purchase price, of 33 shekels, hence one third






1/2 ma-na 3 GIN KU.BABBAR si-im I-lâ-li-i؛-kâ-an a-na Wa-ni-a-al-kâ um-mî-؛u û



Kâ-na-kâ-na DUMU.MÎ

Se-zu-ur Te-pu-lâ a-am-s>u-؛؛٢qû-ul i؛i su-ma ma-ma-an kâ-an-؛a-su-mi I-lâ-li-i



a-na Te-pu-lâ i-tû-a-ar






û Kâ-na-kâ-na

2/3 ma-na 5 GİN KÛ.BABBAR



a-na Te-pu-lâ i-؛a-qû-lu

17 Salih

Çeçen, Yeni

Kûltepe Metinlerine Göre Yerli Asurlu Münasebetleri. First

International Hethitologie Congress Texts p. 143.

IGI A-zi-za-äs

IGI Hi-is-ta-ah-؛>u

IGI Sa-at-A-na

20. DUMU.MI Da-da-nim

IGI I-ku-nim DUMU E-lä-li

11/2 mina and 3 shekels of silver, the price for Ilaliskan, to Wanialka, his mother and to Kanakana, daughter of Sezur, Tepula paid (and) he bought him. 8If anyone raises a claim for Ilaliskan against Tepula, 12Wanialka and Kanakana will pay to Tepula 45 shekels of silver. 17Before Azizas, before Hiätahäu, before Sät-Anna, daughter of Dadänum, before Ikünum son of Elali.

L. 19: It is possible to analyse the female name Sa-at-A-na here and in CCT 5,20c:3; 39c:2,4 as Sät,det.rel. pronoun 3rd per.sing.fem+the name of the god Anna:"She of (the god) Anna", cf. Stamm, Namengebung p.263; AKT 1,1:4.

Nr.12: kt a/k 554 b, a

This text was studied by Balkan, Festschrift Güterbock (1986) p.30, n.13; by Hecker, WdO 11 (1980), p.66 and most recendy by Kienast, AKv p.!08f.

The text is about the sale of a girl and seller and buyer both are women. The sale price is not recorded but if the seller claims the girl, her daughter, back, she will have to pay 15 shekels of silver, perhaps the original sale price.


Obv. 1. Sa-sa-a su-ha-ar-tam

ta-äs-a-am «äu-ma»

N i-wa-ah-su-؛a-ar la ta-tù-a-ar-؛i-im

5. su-ma ta-tù-a-ar-si-im




E. taaru-h

Re١'. 10. IGI Sa-na-bu-11

IGI Ba-di-da

IGI Hi-is-taahsu-saar

1Sasa bought the giil and Niwahsusar shall not come back on her. ؛'If she comes back on lier she ١١dll pay 15 shekels of silver and take her dangliter along. )٥Before Sanabt, before Badida, before Histahsusar.


Ob'.’. 1. KISIB Sa-na-bu-t'i

KISIB Badidaa

KISIB Hi-i؛-ta-ah-su-؛a-[ar]

Sa-sati-i ؟I'i-ha-ar-[tam]

5. ta-aaam-si «suma»

Ni-wa-[ah-s] 11-sa-ar

Rev. [la ta-tu-a-ar-si-im]

[su-ma ta-tu-a-a] r


10. ta-§a-qa٠al٠ma

me-er-a-sa ta-ta-ru-ii

L. 1. It is interesting that the lady recorded as Sa-sa-a in the first line of the tablet occurs as Sa-sa-ti-a in the fourth line of the case. The other personal names belong to Anatolians, so she also must be a native woman.

Nr.l3:kts/k 42

The text records that a claim of 57 shekels of silver, part of which was due as sale price of a boy from IdiKubum.



1/2 mana 7 GIN




1/3 mana Slim






is-ti !di-Ku-bi4-im



DUMU Si-ipri-im



IGI Bekaa






80 anu-qu




137 shekels of silver and separately 20 shekels of silver, the price for a boy, is due from of the messenger. Before Beka, before Azia. 980 inferior rings.


  1. Karl Hecker, Zur Beurkundung V011 Kauf und Verkauf im Altassyrischen, Die Welt des Orients 11 (1980); henceforth Hecker.
  2. Burkhard Kienast, Das Altassyrische Kaufvertragsrecht (Stuttgart; 1984); henceforth Kienast.
  3. Hüseyin Sever, Köle Satışı Hakkında Yeni Kültepe Metinleri. Unpublished paper read at 34th RAI(Istanbul; 1987) henceforth Sever.
  4. See for the be'u5tum: Kienast, JCS 41 (1989), pp. 86-95 and AKT I p.22 on line 10.
  5. CAD A 1 296a; K.R.Veenhof, Festschrift T.Özgüç p.525.
  6. C.Günbatu, Kültepe Metinlerinde Geçen İ ki Yeni Ünvan, Xth Türkish Congress of History (Ankara;1986), p.465.
  7. This title is discussed in detail by the scholars in Anatolica XII (1980). Later on Giinbatu discussed it in Belleten 206 (1989), pp.51.
  8. See above n.7.
  9. In the text: Su
  10. In the text: tm
  11. In the text: Su
  12. In the text: IGI
  13. Çeçen, Master thesis, no.48.
  14. In the text: am
  15. In the text: ru
  16. In the text: ni
  17. Salih Çeçen, Yeni Kültepe Metinlerine Göre Yerli Asurlu Münasebetleri. First International Hethitologie Congress Texts p. 143.

Şekil ve Tablolar