Sadi Bayram

It would be proper and much enlightening to look for the reasons why and how the Ottoman Empire could perpetuate a brillant existence on three continents, Asla, Europe and Africa, in the Akhi Order or Fraternity. In other words, Akhi faith and principles should be counted amongst a myriads of factors that contributed into six centuries of Ottoman domination on these three continents. An Arabic word, the word `akhi' means `my brother' or 'brethren'. Further it connotes and expresses unions, leagues, sydicates etc. established and developped by artisans and traders[1]- The Order had been instrumental in training, forming, educating shop assistants, helpers, apprentices, master craftsmen, crafstmen etc. from thirteenth century onwards until the beginning of the present century in hundreds of branches of arts, crafts trades and skills. The Order helped arrange pageantry, ceremonies at which formed traders, artisans etc. were promoted, trained spiritually as well as morally its adherents, followers and disciples in humanities, etiquettes, worldly virtues and social behaviour.

In "Divan-ü Lügat-i-Türk", a Turkish dictionary penned in 1072 by Mahmud from Kashgar, the word `akhi' is paraphrased as bon coeur, kind, helper, brave, generous in mind and heart as well as in purse [2] and teing an akhi' as bravery, generosity and solidarity[3]

Futuwwanama's are constitutional statutes of the Order. The word lutuwwat' is also Arabic -the scientific and scholarly language of the times. The singular form of the word is 'feta' meaning brave, generous, undaunted, docile etc. Its plural form is 'fityan'. Feta means jevanmerd in Persian [4] or rather a youth who collects all these best qualities in his character.

In short, in both languages, i.e. Arabic and Persian, the word 'feta' and its plural form `fityan' symbolize, describe and idealize the perfect man, the accomplished human being.

In combat a feta endangers his own life to secure those of his friends and companions, he is hospitable, generous and such qualities and virtues can never be pushed to a limit. He never feels exhausted of his unsparing help and assistance.

Abu Bakr Varrak describes feta as the person who has no enemies, known or unknown [5]. Omar b. Osman el-Makki describes 'feta' a person, a youth of benevolent character and docility. To cover up weaknesses of his companions and friends and to protect oneself from the enmity of enemies are prerequisites of "feta" [6]. A hadith says "as man (in relation to Allah) helps his muslim brethren he gains Allah's help[7]' Abraham's generosity to the limit -his attempted sacrifıce to slaughter his own son for the sake of Allah- his generosity, Joseph's forgiveness vis--vis his own brothers and Joshua's companionship for Moses make them all feta since they all obeyed futuwwa and acted as befits such character[8].

In Sufism futuwwa is being described as man's enmity against his own self for the sake of Allah[9]. Main characteristics of futuwwa may be summarized as: meet evil or wickedness with bounty and goodness, not to seek faults and imperfections in others, not to go to your friends' homes unless invited there, not to seek defıciency or fault with what is offered to you in dinner table, to have good behaviour, to be generous, to love people, to worship Allah, to show respect to elders and to cherish the young, to be worthy of one's promise, to take part in friends' jubilations and merriment, not to expect a good turn for a good turn done, not to reprcach someone for anything bad done, to work hardest, to dominate and control one's own self, to worship, to have will power, to be patient, to shun covetousness, to seek wondeıs in science, not to chase away the disciple who is at fault, to be modest, tolerant, to prefer your friends' comfort to your own, to put up with your friends' caprices, to keep one's friends' secrets as such - to be discreet-, not to brag about a good turn done to others, to give without being asked to give and thus not to force your friends to ask for a favour etc; to observe religiously your neighbour's right, justice and due, observance of a promise, to go to the house of a friend who cannot come to your house, to shun haughtiness, to observe and adhere to canonical precepts and tenets[10].

According to a legend Akhi Evran, the founding father of the Order or fraternity is the son of Abbas, an uncle of the Prophet Mohammed [11]. His real name being Mahmud, it is said that the Prophet had giyen him the title of Sultan Akhi Evran on account of his valiant exploits at the time of Badr War and made him marry Rukiyya, a daughter of Ali, the Caliph.

As a common word Evran means a dragon. You would all recall that the word dragon has always symbolized eternal life -this, since central Asian Turks - and was therefore sacred. A synonym of akhi is eternal guardian. This, according to legends in which dragons are said to safeguard treasures and watch ruins and old relics of ancient civilisations. On walls, portals and frontispiece of certain Seljukid caravanserais and castles as well as other edifices and public buildings there exist dragon bas-reliefs [12]. According to another set of legends the herb of eternal life is swallowed by a dragon - as it is the case in Gılgamesh[13] legends where eternal life is discovered by Hızır (A legendary person who attained immortality by drinking from the water of Life) and Lokman[14] (name of a legendary sage regarded as the father of medicine).

In the Middle-Eastern culture it is customary to link legendary personalities to prophets through veli's or friends of Allah [15]. This tradition is reflected in genealogical trees as links in blood, whereas in fact it is simply a chain from one spiritual leader and Sufi teacher to the next and so on [16]. And since all sciences were transmitted to Prophet Mohammed through the Archangel Gabriel this chain of tranmission (of scientific lcnowledge of all sorts) the last link of the chain ends in Adam passing through Prophets Mohammed, Abraham and Noah [17].

Claiming descendence from Akhi Evran, Mrs Aliye Evran from Ankara has recently brought for translation into today's Turkish of the Akhi Genealogical Tree in her possession to Mrs Ülkü Ozsoy [18] of the Cultural Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations. Since it was a remarkable piece of work it was photographed and translated and thus offered to the perusal of scholars working and interested in this field[19]. It will be seen that it is the question of two Akhi Evrans as depicted in legends[20]. According to the genealogical tree in the possession of Mrs Aliye Evran two family lines develop chronologically as follows:

The son of Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammed (Akhi Evran)

Abdulmuttalip

Hashim

Abdi Menaf

Khushaii Khulap (Gülab)

Murrah

Kha'b

Malik Bezluy

Khalib

Fahr

Hamza

Ma'der

Muddrikka

Ilias

Musbırr

Rân

Yesâ

Hemishe

Salaman

Rahim

Khaidar Tarıkh

Ismael

Ibrahim Khalilullah

Uzeir

As to the family line, descending from Abbas-ı Akbar, the genealogical tree we are talking about gives the following sequence:

Abbas-1 Akbar Rukkia, (daughter of Abdallah Ali, the Caliph) Akhi Hızır Akhi Malik Akhi Beshir Akhi Ahmad Akhi Ahmad Junnaid Shehr Akhi Zaiidii Akhi Essed Akhi Turan Akhi Ilias Akhi Juıjanieh Akhi Kemal Akhi Bazergan Akhi Shehred

Akhi Evran Sheik Mahmud Nassrud-din Akhi Mussa Akhi Amira Akhi Amir Junnaid Akhi Muh. Bukhari Akhi Hussein Akhi Mahssud Akhi Ivaz Akhi Mussa Akhi Mussa Akhi Issa Akhi Mustafa

(missing lines on the genealogical tree) Akhi Evliya Akhi Ali (1475 AD) Akhi Mes'ud Akhi Zeyne'l-Abidin Akhi Kassem Akhi Torat 526 AD)

Due to limited time at my disposal I present a photostatic copy of the text of the tree as it is. The genealocial tree is penned in Nesih script on a roll of paper 200 centimeters long and 25 centimeters wide. It is to be perused at the end of the text even the ten-line prayer-litany to be read at the end of the donning of sash of an artisan -who is being promoted - at a ceremony held on the occasion. The genealogical tree we have been talking about here is interesting from another point of view that it is in possession of a famliy that stili bears the patron-saint's original and only name: Evran. Ornamentations on the tree dating from 1803 AD has the characteristics of the last century and reflects the degenerated form of the provincial Turkish art of embellishment.

Mawlana Jelalledin-i Rum, Yunus Emre, Haji Bekthashi Veli and Akhi Evran Nassrud-din had played very important role in shaping and consolidating solidarity amongst Turkish tribes in the Anatolia of the Thirteenth century and trained and formed populations at large spiritually and mentally that led to a propitious background for Ottoman culture at later periods [21]. Osman Ghazi, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty [22] and empire had donned futuwwa baggy trousers from his own father-inlaw, the Sheik Edebâli. His son Orhan Ghazi and Sultan Murat I were akhis[23].

While forming, training, shaping and educating the young apprentices, assistant craftsmen, novices etc during daytime in their workshops and other premises, at night they all gathered in the akhi house or lodge where they ate and drank together, played and danced together and taught social manners, humanities, history, language, literature etc to the same.

Education, training and formation of apprentices, masters, craftsmen etc was not confined necessarily to these disciples and adherents the enlightened section of the population, the literati, poets, philosophers etc also attended these nightly dissertations and lectures at akhi lodges.

Side by side with ethical formation of their members, personal and business integrity etc the alchis have also set up some solid organizations whereby to help their members, to form solidarity amongst them by punishing again amongst their ranks and files cheating tradesmen or craftsmen, protecting rights and honours of those producing quality goods and of prospering trade. In short they had what may be termed as an autocontrol in their system of trading, various inter-trade transactions etc.

Akhis used to advise their disciples and adherents the following six points: keep your hands open (don't be close-fisted, be generous), keep your table open (ofrer food to the needy), keep you house door ajar (be hospitable), keep your eyes covered (by a band of cloth meaning don't see your friends' deficiencies or weaknesses), keep your tongue tied (don't talk to give way your friends' secrets, exercise tact and don't talk of evil or bad of anyone, don't talk rubbish, talk in such a manner and at such a time that people -your listeners- will profit from what you say), keep your belt tight (do not commit adultery). These maxims have much deeper meanings that the words can convey. The real aim is then to form, train and educate the perfect man. Isn't this the same idealistic and virtuous thought in Sufism?

Craftsmen and traders in the akhi order will gather under the dome of prayers [24] every moming before opening their shops and premises to pray, under the leadership of their akhi elders and to listen to their good advices. If one of the traders in the same araçta -shops of the same trade built in a row- had not had his first sale of the day his brethren, i.e. owners of shops next to his will send the next customer to his shop saying "I myself had my first sale of the day, but my brethren in the next shop had not had his yet, so may I ask you kindly to proceed thereto for your purchases”. This is indicative of the fact that akhis did not think of themselves alone, they were attentive and careful about social justice, prosperity, distribution of income in an equal manner etc and were somewhat oblivious of extreme wealth and affluence from which to egoistically profit. There existed even no notion of competition, prices of similar goods being same in every place, in every shop in almost excellent quality. Strict rules of quality and self-control over each individual production were jealously observed.

Akhis had their own financial resources in the form of common coffert, common purse and mutual assistance funds or caisse whereby they could assist financially their members and extend loans without interest.

Pious foundations established from 1299 -foundation of the Ottoman Empire until 1453 -conquest of Istanbul and the end of Byzantium- by Akhi Order and their deeds of trust in the custody of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations may be summed up as follows: We learn from log 581 / 2 in the Archives of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations in Ankara in the year 1438 (AD) a certain Shemseddin Akhi Ahmed bin Akhi el-Haj Murad bin el-Haj Hussam endowed all his personal possession for education and training of pupils in the medresseh that he had constructed to bear his name.

Deed of trust belonging to endowment made and established in the name of Hajı Mehmet Akhi Pehlivan of Nikssar (northeastem Anatolia) in July 1323 indicate that money and properties bequeathed were to be used to fınance education of the poor and to feed the needy. Furthermore, for his lodge -or rather for the lodge that bears his name- he bequeathed table sets, cutlery, silvers etc. plus wheat, meat, bread, salt, honey -fifty pounds-, halva (a sort of Turkish sweet made of semolina, sugar and sesame seeds), cooking oil and Çat, flour, fuel wood, olive oil or fat for ceiling lamps etc to be perpetuated rents collected from host of other properties and buildings he left rented. Moreover, he stipulated enough sums to be used for repair and restoration of public fountains in his district.

In Tchorum (a northem town in Anatolia some 200 miles northeast of Ankara) Akhi Ahmed bin Emir Hassan leaves all his property for an akhi lodge to be built 1366 AD and bequeathes all his fields, lands, vineyard, orchards etc. for the maintenance ad infinitum and supply of this lodge. We also learn through this self same deed of trust that at that time 1366 AD there was an active akhi lodge in Tchorum, that of Sheik Zeynuddin.

From another deed of trust, established this time by Shemsuddin Ahmet Tchelebi, also known as Akhi and Mint Master of Amassia, in 14 jo AD vve learn that he vvas instrumental in the construction and supply ok Akhi Mahmud Lodge in that same city, named after his father.

Deed of trust registered in Log 1760 in the vault of Archives Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations says that in 1437 AD Bedreddin Akhi Mahrrıud of Kaisseri (the ancient Caesarea) had beqeathed ad infinitum arable land, watermill, houses etc. in the district of Gömeç.

A study of Mehmet Akhi Effendi's deed of trust dated 1443AD indicate that this akhi had also left considerable property in the form of endowments.

In his deed of trust bearing the date of 1334AD, Ahmed bin Zeynul Haj, alias Akhi Amir of Sivas (eastern Anatolia) says he had constrııcted an akhi lodge and a mesjid (small mosque) adjacent to it in the district of Tokmak of Sivas. For the financial support and generation of funds for the maintenance of these creations he endowed several shops and premises within the centre of the city as well as arable lands, fields, orchards, vineyards in the township called Hafik. Amongst shops thus beqeathed there were pickles seller's, butcher's, bakery, syrop and fruit juice seller's, general store, Ebeheri Public Bath. Guests in this bath paid nothing, revenues from arable lands and orchards were spent for the maintenance and supply of the akhi lodge, poor students and students housed in buildings adjacent to the lodge were also provided. These are all indicative of both akhi spirit and tradition: loyalty to his brethren, fraternity in its deepest sense and implication, friendliness, solidarity and assistance provided for the poor and the needy.

In Log a ı o5 kept in the Archives Section of the Cultural and Registry Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations there exists also a deed of trust registered in the name of Pir-I Piran Akhi Evran Nassrüddin of Kırshehir (a mid-Anatolian township where the saint patron of artisans and traders Akhi Evran has his sacred tomb) and dated 1306 AD. Its entry into the Log a ı o5 dates April 1917. Deeds of trust for pious foundations established and registered by aziza, the saints were kept outside the control and handling of the Ministry of Awkaf. A study of this deed of trust reveals the following:

For welcoming of and providing for guests descending at guesthouse adjacent to Akhi Evran Veri (the saint) Lodge and to His mesjid (small mosque that go with the complex) the following properties and lands are endowed ad infinitum: Various arable lands, presently used for a series of agricultural purposes situated at Kızılca, Pazar Ağı!, Çardak, Lodran, Kalpak, Kara Halil Pür Village, Ince Kar, Yazıbicir, Gökçeli, Kızılkaya, Ağmalca, Ağı!, Karslan, Arslan, Tomuş, Mikail Hisarlı, Beydüzü, Kozağaç, Mucur, Gümüş, Kümbet, Sefir Saray, Yazı Kınık, Akhi Yüzler, Kükgeven, Ilmülk and Gökçehüyük. Names of these places are also important from a point of toponomy, as we learn, infer and surmise from place names that at the period in question there happened to be living some famous personalities in Ler alia: Sheik Hamid-i Veli, Khadi Ahmed Fawzi, Khadı Esseyyid Lütfullah, Khadi Esseyyid Hassan bin Hussein, Khadi Mustafa, Khadi Ahmed Bende-i Huda, Khadi Mehmet Mazhar, Khadi Abdurahman, Shehit Abdullah bin Ali, Shehit Suleiman bin Mehmet, Shehit Yussuf bin Ahmed, Shehit Ahmed bin Hassan, Shehit Yunus bin Ismail, Shehit Ihras bin Ahmed, Shehit Hussein bin Bayazet, Shehit Mustapha Effendi bin Bahshaish, Shehit Mussa bin Dawlat, Shehit Molla Ali bin Mahmud Molla, Shehit Lezeshtimi Tchelebi bin Messud.

It is understood from a study of various deeds of trust that between the years 1300-1453 akhis have terminated the construction of their lodges, houses and other gathering premises in Edirne, Sivas, Kayseri and Çorum provinces of the Empire. Thousands and thousands of deeds of trust yet to be classified and registered are outside the ones we have mentioned already.

Furthermore, when akhi pious foundations in and around Ankara are scanned we have endowments concerning Elvan Mosque, Akhi Shemseddin Mesjid, the Green Akhi Medresseh and Mosque, Akhi Sheraffeddin Mosque, Akhi Hajı Murad Mosque and Akhi Tchomak Foundations.

Several Turkish tribes have had their special sigmas and stamps ever since they lived in Central Asia, similarly at the times of both Anatolian Seljukids and Ottoman Empire in buildings, public or otherwise, masons that is stonemasons constructing walls etc had their own marks engraved on stones[25]. It is possible to discern these marks for example in Great Mosque in Sivas (a twelth century masterpiece), in Bayazet II complex of buildings, on side walls of Büyük Çekmece Bridge built by Great Sinan and several other monuments and historic buildings in Anatolia proper.

In dissertations, debates and colloquiums engaged in in akhi lodges and guesthouses much philosophical thoughts and aspirations were exchanged between lodge members and their guests. Folkloric pageantry and banquets without liqour were offered.

Friendly intercourses, conversations and lively talks in akhi lodges and houses went on until quite recently in several central Anatolian townships [26].

By the end of the sixteenth centuıry, due to non-admission of nonmuslims into their ranks and files, foreign trade being in the hands of Christian or Jewish subjects of the Sultan, entry into trade of military classes, transformation of the Akhi Fraternity into labour unions or syndicates, leagues etc and finally due to capitulations and privileges recognized to foreign powers led first to decline in the economy and trade of the Empire and this decline and fail precipitated the downfall of the Akhi order. The Akhi thought, philosophy, precepts and practices that originated in the Central Asia, transmitted to Baghdad through the Abbasids and from there to Anatolia proper through Great Seljukid Empire, had firmly established itself, developed and reached eventual culmination in the life and economy of the land in the years 1250- ı 3ooAD under its great leader Akhi Evran Nassuriddin Veli, the patron saint of craftsmen and traders of all callings.

European knights who at the head of their crusading soldiers travelled in Anatolia and then in the Middle-East in a bid to liberate the Holy Land from muslims contacted akhis and were much fascinated by and greatly admired their solidarity, work discipline, obedience to their sheiks and identified themselves with the bravery displayed by akhis in battlefields. When the last Crusades ended they all retumed home with new ideas and a new tradition much inspired by akhis.

Towards the end of the Medieaval times however through decline and fall of knighthood, potentates, despots and autocrats had all seen their power and glory overshadowed. Reformist movements and finally renaissance led the nobility to seek fresh occupations. Silk trade with China, import and export created a class of nouveau riche who began to emulate the past grandeur of their former masters and ancesters by building mansions, castles and palaces that reflected their raw tastes.

Added to these were new churches, temples etc. that badly needed the labour of highly qualified -and therefore rare- stone masons who were extremely few. Stone masons, master stonecutters created marvels with their chisels and gaye such magnificience to every structure touched by their hands. Quite logically their leaders, who grouped them around themselves formed societies. These guilds and lodges kept all outsiders at bay as the need for secrecy connected with their skill, organizational set up and particularities of their crafts was paramount Knights who took part with their soldiers in the Crusades and who travelled at length in Anatolia and the Middle-East and in fact every Crusader for that matter contacted akhis and identified themselves with akhi discipline, secrecy and solidarity that was coupled with Islamic, Judaic and Christian traditions that inspired masonic and freemasonic lodges and the philosophy of masons was made public in 1715 through Anderson Rules.

In fact as far as we can delve into the nature, precepts and aims of masonry it seems to be on line with both alchi principles and futuwwa ideals. Whereas futuwwa and akhiism base themselves on Islam and Sufism, freemasons only stipulate a belief in God. They see no difference in three monotheistic creeds and in their congregations they keep three great books open side by side and claim to be enlightened by them. No atheist is admitted into their tight ranks. Alchi apron, alchi girdle or sash are similar to masonic apron to symbolize chastity and uprightness. Apart from its religious part and parcel the education and spiritual formation in old Ottoman dervish and althi lodges remind us of today's ceremonies in masonic lodges.

ANİ EVRAN ŞECERESI

Bismillahi'r-rahmani'rahim

El-hamdû li'llâhi Rabbil'alemin ve's-salâtu ve's-selâmu 'alâ Muhammedin ve âlihi ecma'ine. Lemmâ semi'û nidâe "yâ eyyühe'llezine amenu tûbû ila'llâhi tevbeten nasûhen" âmenü bi-kavlihi "yuhibbu et-tevvâbin" ve'stebşerû bi-beşâretin" ve'llezine câhedû finâ lenehdiyennehum sabulenâ ve inne'llâhe leme'al-muhsinine'inde zikri's-sâlihine tenezzelu'r-Rahmeti sadaka'llâhu'l-'azimu'l-celflu'lcebbâru ve nahnu'alâ zâlike mine'ş-şâhidine ve salla'llâhu 'alâ seyyidinâ Muhammedin ve âlihi ecma'in.

Der-mûnâcât ve menâkı b-ı AM Evran Pâdişâh Rahmetu'llâhi 'aleyhi bir gün Hazret-i Resül Salla'llâhu Te'âlâ 'aleyhi ve sellem ile oturup çı ktı p Mescid-i A'zam'a teveccüh kıldı. Ba'zı ashâb-ı kibârla seyyidâtları Ahi Evran bile idi. Bir kelb ölisine uğradı lar. Sahâbeler yüzlerin dündürüp enflerin dutup kerhile geçdiler. Resül Hazret-i 'aleyhi ve sellem nutkıle ne güzel dişleri var didi. Andan AM Evran Hazreti dönüp geldi ol kelbün derisin yüzüp dibâgat idüp Resül Hazretine getürdi. Resülu'llâh Salla'llahû Te'âlâ 'aleyhi ve sellem anı görüp tahsin eyledi. Rahmetu'llâhi'aleyhi AM Evran ikidir. Biri 'Abbâsi'l-ekberdür. Rahmetu'llâhi 'aleyhi ibni'Abdu'l-Muttalib ibni Haşim ibni 'Abdi Menâf ibni Kusayyi Külâb ibni Murra ibni Ka'b ibni Mâlik Bezlity bin Kâlıb ibni Fahr ibni Hamza ibni Ma'der ibni Mıldrike ibni Ilyas ibni Musbır ibni Rân ibni'l-Yesâ' ibni Hemişe' ibni Salâmân ibni Rahim ibni Kaydâr Tarih ibni Ismâ'il ibni İbrahim Halilu'llah 'aleyhi's-selâm oglı re'y-i `Uzeyr bilgil kim, evvel mürşidi ve Ah! ve $eyhi Hazret-i 'Ali kerrema'llâhu vechehudur ve 'Ali'den sonra imam Hasan oldı ve andan sonra imâm Hüseyn oldı . Resülu'llâh salla'llâhu 'aleyhi ve sellem Hazretleri 'Abbâs-ı Ekber"e Ahilik vericek Cebrâ'il (A.S.) geldi Hazret-i Hak Te'âlâdan selam getürdi. Eyitdi: Yâ Resüla'llâh, Hakk Te'âlâ buyurur kim `Ali Hazretlerine Arslanlık virdi ve Hamza'ya Pehlivânlık virdi ve Abbâs-ı Ekbere Evranlık virdi. Anunçiin ana Ah! Evran didiler. Imdi Ah! olan kişinin eli açuk gerek ve sofrası açuk gerek. Hazret-i 'Ali kerrema'llâhu vechehu buyurdı kim Ahilikden murad sehâvetdi:ır. Ahiniin kim sehâveti (veti) ve sofrası olmasa anun Ahiligi bi-ferdândur, Ahi olmaga bu şartlar lâzımdur [27]. "Aziz min imdi bilgil ki Hazret-i Resülu'llâh salla'llâhu 'aleyhi ve sellem ve Hazret-i Ali'nin kerrema'llâhu vechehu, 'Abbâs-ı Ekber ammileridir. Hazret-i Resulu'llah salla'llâhu'aleyhi ve sellem sahâbeye eyitdi: Ben 'Abbâs-ı Ekber'e pişenlik virdüm. Siz ne virirsiz didi. Her biri birer teberrük virdiler. Hazret-i Ali'nin kızı Ru k iyye'yi[28] 'Abbas-ı Ekber' oglu 'Abdu'llâh'a[29] virdi. Andan sonra Ah! Hızır oldı andan Ah! Mâlik oldı andan Ah! Beşir oldı. Ah! Beşir'den Ah! Ahmed oldı. Ah! Ahmed Ciineyd andan şehr oldı. Andan Ah! Zâyidi oldı, Ah! Zâyidi'den Ah! Esed oldı. Ah! Esed'den Ah! Turan oldı. Ah! Turan'dan Ah! Ilyas oldı, Ah! Ilyâs'dan Ah! Cürcâni oldı. Ah! Cürcâni'den Ah! Kemal oldı, Ah! Kemâl'den Bâzirgân'dan oldı. Ahi Bâzirgân'dan Ahi şehred oldı ve andan ikinci Ah! Evran oldı ve Ah! Mûsâ oldı ve Irşâd dahi Evrandur kıldı. Ah! Emire değdi. Ah! Emirci (?) dahi Evrandur. Karındaşı oglı Ah! Müsâ'nın ogludur ve Ah! Evran'ın dahi adı Nasrud-clin idi. Bunlar Ah! Bâzirgân oglanlarıdur. 'Abbâs-ı Ekber neslidür. Ah! Emir Ciineyd'- den Ah! Muhammed Buhar! oldu. Muhammedi'l-Buhâri'den Ah! Hüseyn oldı. Ah! Hüseyn'den Ah! Maksûd oldı. Ah! Maksüd'dan Ah! Nasûh oldı. Ah! Nasülf dan Ah! 'Ivaz oldı. Ah! Ivaz'dan Ah! Mûsâ oldı. Ah! Müsâ'dan üç oglan oldı. Biri Ah! Mûsâ, biri Ah! 'liâ, biri Ah! Mustafâ'dur. Biri Ah! Evliyâ'nun oglu Ah! 'Ali'dür. Dahi Medine'ye gelüp Hicret-i Nebevi"nün semânûn ve semâne mi'eti (880 H.) [30] yı lında gelüp Seyyid Muhammed'den bahrına beden nesebi beyan eclüp nesli beline kuşadıp irşâda havale idüp revâne oldı ve dahi Ah! Mes'ûd oglu Ah! Zeyne'l-Abiclin'dür ve Ah! Zeyne'12Abidin'ün oğlu Ahi Kasım'dur. Ahi Kasım oğlu Ahi Torat'dur. Kerbelâ'ya varup selase ve selasün ve tıs'a mi'etin (933 H-)[31] yılında nesli beline bagladup kuşanup Seyyid Muhammed aleti elinden revâne oldı ve Hazret-i Sebbâdât ve Nekâyib Sahi (?) Seyyid Gıyase'ddin'den Tecdid-i Fâtiha ve Teksir eyledi. icazet-i 'ihabet virüp buyurdı kim her kimesne kim bu tarika iştiyak ve taleb idüp bunlara yapışup 'inabet idüp meyân bagladup icâzet' alsa tamam kamil olur. Zira tatilin göstermişdür ve dahi Ahi Evran neslidür. Ba'dehu Evran nesli bundan beyân olunur. Ve erkan-ı tatil yüzinde mülâhaza olundı imdi her kimesne bu tat-- ilden recası vardur gerekdir ki yolunda şekk(ü)şübhe götürmeye. Zira Hazret-i Fatma Radiya'llâhu 'anha neslidür. Hazret-i Resül sallallahraleyhi ve sellem buyurmuştur: Kale (A.S.): "Men ekreme evladi fakad ekremeni felehu el-cenneti sadaka". Kale (A.S.): "Ve men ahkara evladi fakad ahkarani felehu'n-nâri sadaka." ResCil Hazret-i salla'llahu Te'ala 'aleyhi ve sellem ne didi (er) kim me'ş-şerratfı ve ma'lhakikatu kale'n-Nabiyyû salla'lahu 'aleyhi ve sellem."

"Eş-şerrılatfı akvali ve't-tarikatü erali ve'l-hakikatü hali. "ya'ni Resül sallallahu 'aleyhi ve sellem buyurmuşdur ki şerrat benim kavlimdür, tarikat benim ef alimdür, hakikat halümdür didi ve bir hadis dahi buyurdı ki; "Eş-şerratü huve'l-Kur'ân'un zâhirun ve't-tarikatü hatınun vel-ma'rifetü zâtuhu.' Ya'ni şerr at Kur'ân'nın zahiridür, tarikat bâtınıdür, hakikat sırridür, ma'rifet zatıdür. Pes tarikat ve hakikat ve şerrat hemân olmışdur ki cânile ten oldu. Bir hakikat bereketi ve şerr at dahi tarikat bilmekdür ki esrar-ı Ilahrnün müftileri şöyle rivâyet itmişler ve ahbâr ve asar-ı na-mütenahi nakilde getürdiler ger fıltüvvet kelam-ı kadim-i ezelide mezkûr ve menşûr hükm'i lem-yezelide mestûr ki kalû; "Semrna feten yezkuruhum yukalu lehu İbrahim sadaka" ve dahi bilmek gerekdür ki a'zam fütılvvetdir. Ve devletiü ol kişi kim edeb anın nefsinde mezkürdur. Şöyle kim buyurmuşlar "babu'llah meftûhun la yedhuluhâ illa biâdâbin ve inneke hulasa vudı'a küllü şey'in fi mertebetihi' dür. Ve dahi bilmek gerekdür kim fütüvvet cemr adab-ı tarikat ile ârâste ve pirastedür ve rütbe-i tâ'at ve lokma yimek ve mûkâleme itmek ve tarikıyla gitmek varup övmek (?) ve kemer-bestelik ve açmaklık edeb ve zâhir ve (zâhir) ve bâtın ahlaki hamide ve a'mâl-i saliha ile istinâs iden ve ol kehrimeşden olma ısta'uzu bi'llahi" ve lakad zere' nâ li-cehenneme kesiren mine'l-cinni ve'l-ünsi lehum kulûbun la yafkahune bihâ ve lehum a'yununla-yubsırüne bihâ ve lehum azânun la yesma'ûne bihâ ula'ike ke'l-enâm bel hum adallu ula'ike humu'l-gafılfine" ve fütüvvetdür gerekdür kim Ilahi hasletle murâd ile evvel ve fütilvvetün altı merkezi vardur ve mu'- ayyen ola kim onun üç rükni Küşadlıkdur. Tevfik-i ilahi evvel kapusu ehl-ullah' (a) açık ola, ikinci küşad nişanı ya'ni güler yüzi ola, üçünci hulkı hoş ola. "Hel etake hadisu dayfı Ibrahime el-mükremine iz dahalü 'aleyhi" ve hulkı hoş ola sözi kabül itmekdûr. Ey 'aziz 'ilin ve 'amel ve zühdi bilgil nedür az yimek az yatmak ve bu akvâlinCın beşinci ve hulasası irtihâdur. Mübarek ve şerrat bi-ism-i seyyidi mürselin ve'l-hamdıl li'llâhi Rabbi'l-'âlemin. Bâ'is-i tahririnden garaz oldur ki Ahi 'Ali bin Nefer ogil olan bu dergah-ı melâ'ik mekan-1 hazret- i seyyidi'ş-şiihedâi 'Abdu'llâh Hüseyn Radıya'llâhu 'anhu istinâ-i şerifierine müşerref oldı cemi'-i sâdat-ı 'ızâm ve bekâ-i kirâm hizmetlerine oldu kadar belin baglayup ve tekbir-i Müsâ ile çı kma (?) okudılar ve mezkür dahi kazan kaynadup kurbanlar kesüp huşü' ve huzirları ziyârât idüp du'a-i Fâtiha'dan sonra şeddi ve sofra ve çırag-ı mezkür Ahi Evran Şeyh Mahmüd kaddese sı rrı hu'l-'aziz Hazretleri pir-i debbâgân havale olundı gerekdür ki her vilâyetün müftileri 'Arabda ve 'Acemde ve Türkde olan ve iklimde olan şeyhler ve ehl-i erkân ve kethildalar ve ahiler ve şeyhler ve yigitbaşılar ve cümle olan ihtiyârlar gerekdür ki mezkür Atıf Evran Hazretlerinün emrinden tecâvüz itmeyeler. Ihtiyarlar, pirler ve her kimesne murad isterse mezkürun hizmetinde ber-murâd olur. Zira ekber-i iistâdlardan olan ihtiyarlar (ihtiyâr) icâzet virdiler. kem â huve hakkahu ihtiyâr birle enva-i irfet ve i'zâzi ve ihtirâmi dırig eğer şekk gösterürse ne'û'zu bi'llâhi zarar-ı dini ve 'azâb-ı sermediyye giriftâr ola ve'l-hamdu lillâhi Rabbi'l-alemin ve ba'dehu bir kimesne Hazret-i 'Abbas-ı Ekber evlidından olup hazret-i Imam 'Ali'ye ve hazret-i Imam Hüseyin'e gelüp Adem peygamberi ve hazret-i Nüh peygamberi ziyarat idüp Ahi Evran anun nefes oglıdur buna şekk eylemekden katı i'tirâz üzere olalar her kimesnenin ne murad' maksüdu olur ise muradı na irişe. Zira ehl-i erkân dercâtıyla çakmışdur ve on yedi peygamberin işledügi san'at buna icâzet virilmişdik. Bunları su'â1 idüp yirlü yirine hizmetine (?) mezbür ta'yin olmuşdur.

Temmet

Bi-'avni'l-melı ki'l-Vehhâb.

Semâniyeti aşar ve mieteyn ve elf. (1218) min hicret-i menlehu'l izzu ve ve's-saadetu ve'ş-şeref.

Şeddi kuşanmadan mukaddem bu du'â okunur: Allah Allah Inna- 'llâhe ma'a's-sabirin. Hak Te'âlâ vardır. Şeriki naziri yokdur. Padişah oldur veziri yokdur. Ferd-i yektadır. Elifin ma'nası bu. 01 ahad fahr-i "âlemdür. Muhammed Mustafa nür-ı kevneyndûr. Muhammed Mustafa cemaliindür senfın. Nurı Ilahi yüzündılr 'alem mihri mahl nisâk olsun. Senâ dünya ve `ukbâ sensin ki din-u dünya padişahı es-selâmu aleyküm yâ erbab-ı ehli şerrat erkanı Muhammed'e salavat. Der-miyân idelüm varımızdan yarimizden hani-mani terk idelüm canı dildarımızdan sı rrımız gizlü degildir vakitsiz esrarımıza çün evvelden berii didilerde soralım ı krarımıza es-selamu 'aleyktım yâ erbab-ı ehl-i tarikat erkanı Muhammed'e salavat, Ehl-i derde dert olalım nokta gibi ferd olalım hûşalım ktihı harâba tadilin âbâd olsun nânı ni'met koya şu dünyada bir 'acl olsun bize teslim olalım tâlibe irşad olsun es-selâmu `aleyküm yâ erbab-ı ehl-i hakikat erkanı Muhammed'e salavat. Du'acırm du'acıdan armağan du'â Hakk kılıcı Sultan Ahi Evran-ı Velinün tariki bir takdir tarikin irşad idelim şu dünyada bir -ad olsun pire teslim olalım tâlibe irşad olsun. Es-selâmu 'aleyküm yâ erbab-ı ehl-i ma'rifet erkanı Muhammed'e salavat. Destini destime virgil deste-girimdir. Allah pir ile yok pervane kıblemiz dergahsız erenler huzürunda şeddi kuşamp piri pir olmak ister halkalar ne bilyüksüz ihtiyârlar ustalar ehle mahallihim cemâlen cân irişdi el-hamdu li'llahi ne devletlü zemâne irdik el-hamdu li'llahi vatandan gayri düşdüm yabanaden yola geldim gene geldim el-hamdu li'llah Resüliin seccâdesi çtiın bize virildi el-hamdu li'llah dini pak Hazret-i Muhammed Mustafa râ salavat 'azameti Hudâ. Tekbir :

(Allahu ekber Allahu ekber âh ah)

Şikeste gönlüme ilham irişdi

Uyandı cân gözi el-hamdu li'llah

Dipnotlar

  1. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çagatay's work soon to be published in English: "Bir Türk Kurumu Olan Ahilik: A Typically Turkish Institution: the Akhi Order”, Ankara üniversitesi İlihiyat Fakültesi Yayınları, Ankara Universitesi Basımevi, ı g74., pp 3.
  2. Kaşgarlı Mahmud, "Divanü Lügat-it Türk", V. I, pp go.
  3. idem V. I, pp 310, V. III. pp 172 and 329, Divanü LCıgat-it Türk Dizini, published by the Turkish Language Society and printed by Ankara University Press, Ankara, 1972 ed, P P 7.
  4. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çağatay's work mentioned in note ı above, pp 4.
  5. idem pp 5.
  6. idern pp 5.
  7. idem pp 5.
  8. Ebu Abdi'r-Rahman Muhammed Ibn el Huseyn es-Sulemi (translated by Süleyman Ateş) published by Faculty of Theology University of Ankara, Ankara University Press, 1977, PP 4.
  9. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çağatay, work mentioned in note 1, 5-7 above, pp 5.
  10. Es-Sulemi, work mentioned in note (8) hereabove, pp. 7.
  11. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çağatay, work mentioned in note 9, pp 57, Sabahattin Güllülü "Ahi birlikleri otüken Yayınevi, 1977, pp 149, Cevat Hakkı Tanm "Tarihte Kırşehri, Gülşehri", Istanbul, 1948, pp 78 Enver Behnan Şapolyo "Tarihte Kırşehir" Ankara, 1966, pp Mithat Gürata "Unutulan Adetlerimiz ve Loncalar". Ankara 1975, pp 78.
  12. Bas-relief dragons are to be found on Alay Khan (Inn), Ejder (Dragon) Khan, Susuz Khan, Kayseri Karatay Khan, Tuzhisar Sultan Khan, Kayseri Döner Kümbet, Kayseri Sahabiyye Medresseh, Çankın Hospital, Erzurum Double-Minaret Mosque, Diyarbakır Castle and Fortification, Ahlat tombstones of Seljukid period, while dragon motifs take place in omamentations to be found on fountain taps, door handles in Anatolian homes etc.
  13. Prof. Dr. Emin Bilgiç's article in `Turkish Encyclopaedia' on "I:lluge", pp 446.
  14. Ahmet Yaşar Ocak "Islâm-Türk İnançlarında Hızır Yahut Hızır-İlyas Kültü", a publication of Türk Kültürünü Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayınları, Ankara University Press 1985, pp 121.
  15. Sadi Bayram "Musavvir Hüseyin Tarafından Minyatürleri Yapılan ve Halen Vakı flar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivinde Muhafaza Edilen Silsile-Nâme", published in Vakı flar Dergisi V. XIII 1981, pp 253-254 and printed at the Press of the Prime Ministry; Sadi Bayram; "Amasya Taşova-Alparslan Beldesi Seyyid Nureddin Alparslan er-Rufai'nin 655 H./I257 M Tarihli Arapça Vakfıyesi ile 996 H./1588 M. Tarihli Seyyid Fettah Veli'nin Sillsile-nâmesi", Vakı flar Dergisi, S. XXIII Tisamat Basım Sanayii, Ankara 1994, pp. 34; Sadi Bayram; "Silsile-nâmeler ve Irlanda- Dublin Chester Beatty Library'de bulunan 1598 Tarihli Zübdetü't-Tevarih", Vakı flar Dergisi, S. XXIV Tisimat Basım Sanayii, Ankara 1994, pp. 51.
  16. Hüseyin Atay "Fatih Süleymaniye Medreseleri Ders Programları ve Icâzetnâmeler" published in Vakıflar Dergisi, V. XIII, in 1981., pp. 197-205; Diploma of Haji Salim Bayram (my grandfather) Abdurrahman bin Ismail Akifzade Amasyevi (my great grandfather, d. 1808 AD) whose works are: "Shulet'l Yakin" "Unvan'l Meshaikh" "Takribu'l-Mubteda" "Sebilus Salikhin" "Mukimmat-i Sufiyya" "Fi Teracümül Meshaikh va'l Ulema" "Mirlatun Nazirin" "Fi Münebbihatu't Tahirin" A list of his works "Kitabu'l Mejmuu fil Meshuri va'l Mesmu" is in İstanbul Millet Kütüphanesi - sheet 4o -41. This famous scholar had also endorsed the deed of trust of Beihan Sultan in his capacity as Inspector of states in mortmain at the Ministry of Pious Foundations.
  17. Hüseyin Atay's work mentioned in note 16 immediately above, pp 197-205 Akhi Huijadj Muhammad bin Yussurs genealogical tree kept in the Archives Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations under general classification of 19o7, K. 239 and dated 1292 AD.
  18. My thanks go here to Mrs Aliyye Evran, a descendant of Akhi Evran, the Patron Saint of traders and craftsmen and to Mrs ülkü Özsoy, one of my colleagues.
  19. Sadi Bayram an Akhi Genealogical Tree, VIII. Pre-ottoman, And Ottoman Symposium, Minnesote, August, 1987.
  20. Sabahattin Güllülü's "Ahi birlikleri ötüken Yayınevi Istanbul 1977, pp. 14.9-150.
  21. Sadi Bayram's work "Türklerde Esnaf Teşkilatı Ahilik ve Loncalar", Milli Kültür, V. I, pp 7, Ankara July 1977, pp. 4.8-53.
  22. Enver Behnan Şapolyo "Ahiliğin Tarihçesi ve Ahi Evran-ı Veli", Ğınasya Mecmuası, V. II, pp 20, San Matbaası, April 1967.
  23. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çağatay's "Bir Türk Kurumu Olan Ahilik", pp 58. Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı's "Mevlana'dan sonra Mevlevilik", İstanbul 1953, pp 275.
  24. Yılmaz Önge's "Türk Çarşılannda Dua Kubbeleri", önasya Mecmuası V. VI, pp 63, Ayyıldız Printinghouse, November 19.
  25. Zafer Bayburtluoglu's "Anadolu'da Selçuklu Dönemi Yapı Sanatçıları, Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayınları, Erzurum, 1993, pp. 24.0.
  26. Ibrahim Numan's "Çankın'da Yaran Sohbetleri ve Sohbet Odaları", Vakıflar Dergisi ıssue no. XIII pp 591 and dated 1981.
  27. Seyyidar olması lazım.
  28. Belirtme durum eki ( ı hemze) ile verilmiştir.
  29. Yönelme eki hareke ile verilmiştir.
  30. 880 H. (1475-6 M.).
  31. 933 H. (1526-7 M.).