Education Policy of Tsarist Russia in the Southern Kazakhstan (1850-1914)
Mirzahan Egamberdi̇yev, Lazzat Di̇nasheva
Keywords: Tsarist Russia, South Kazakhstan, Muslim Education Institutions, Russian-Tuzemets Schools, Russifi cation Policy, Orthodox Missionary
Occupation of the Southern Kazakhstan by the Tsarist Russia in 1867 was completed with the establishment of Turkistan Governorate. Southern Kazakhstan joined Russian State under the provincial sectioning of Sirderya and Yedisu. One of the main characteristics of this region is that it holds more Kazakh population compared to other parts of Kazakhstan. Additionally, in this part of the country, Islamic and nationalistic ideas are prevailing as well as the resistance ideas against the Russian occupation. Above all, nomad Turkish tribes in Sirderya and Yedisu were a principal problem as they were not willing to obey newcomers. Under these circumstances, Tsarist Russia utilised education for the Russifi cation the region. This study aims to shed light on the Russifi cation policies of Tsarist Russia by using education as a tool in the Sirderya and Yedisu region. Among the topics to be investigated are educational programs, characteristics of teachers, teacher education of local Russian girls in Russian-Tuzem schools and missionary activities. The study is mainly based on primary sources derived from Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan state archives. One of the principal conclusions of the study is that Tsarist Russia utilised Russian-Tuzemets schools as instrument for Russifi cation policies and empowered them vis a vis madrasas and local schools as well as policies on the wide usage of Russian language in education. It is understood that Russian was featured in the curriculum of these schools and Russian speaking was important in appointments, which is a typical colonial policy.