Faḍlallāh Al-Ḥurūfī and His World: Power, Religion, and Sufism
Ankara University, Faculty of Languages History and Geography, Department of Turkish Language and Literature, Ankara/TURKEY
Keywords: Faḍlallāh Astarābādī, Ḥurūfism, XVth Century Mystisism.
This article discusses Faḍlallāh al-Ḥurūfī’s relations with political and religious circles in detail from his early youth when he left Astarabad, until his execution at the behest of Mīrānshāh, Timur’s son, in 796/1394. The common opinion of why Faḍlallāh was executed is considered to be either his superstitious ideas or his pursuit of some messianic, and thus power-related, goals. We tried to find some clues to confute such stereotypical approaches. To this end, we tried to determine Faḍlallāh’s view and stance in regard to power by taking into consideration his relationships with statesmen. It was the ʿulamāʾ and the sufis who played the most critical and significant role in Faḍlallāh’s relationships with commoners and statesmen, as well as in his execution. That is why we have placed special emphasis on Faḍlallāh’s ties with the ʿulamāʾ and sufi circles. We discuss how the ʿulamāʾ and sufis tried to disqualify the other flourishing rival groups in the period leading up to Faḍlallāh’s execution.