Ottoman-Brazilian Relations in the 19TH Century and in the Beginning of the 20TH, According to Ottoman Archival Sources
Keywords: Ottoman Archival Sources, Ottoman-Brazilian Relations, 19TH Century and in the Beginning of the 20TH
Beginning from the early 19th century, the Ottoman State signed political, economic and social treaties with many Asian, European and American countries, on the basis of reciprocity. One of the first countries with which relations were established within the context of the privileges recognised to foreigners with the so-called capitulations, the Tanzimat reforms and the following modernisation movement, was the South American country of Brazil. A Friendship, Residence, Commerce and Shipping Treaty made up of 11 articles and a summary section was signed on 5th February 1858 with Brazil. This treaty established the legal, diplomatic and commercial rules to be followed by the diplomats, merchants and citizens of these two countries when visiting the other country. As a result of this treaty the relations between the countries developed, with reciprocal diplomatic representations being established and official visits being done. Brazil having introduced incentives to increase its workforce employed in coffee plantations, more than hundred thousand Ottoman citizens from the Middle East and in particular from Syria, emigrated to Brazil. While Brazil had four consulates in the Ottoman Empire in Mansure, Tanta, Cairo (Egypt) and Yafa, the Ottoman State had consulates in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Beginning from 1909, Brazil made many attempts to open consulates in Istanbul and Beirut, but did not manage to, due to the fact that it had not agreed to sign a reciprocity in consular affairs, put forward by the Ottoman State as condition for these two consulates. From the late 19th century, problems concerning the rights of Ottoman citizens in Brazil worsened relations. Ottoman citizens in Brazil published around twenty Arabic language newspapers, which, except for one or two, had an anti-Ottoman editorial line. The first treaty between the Turkish Republic and Brazil was the Turkish-Brazil Friendship Treaty signed on 8th September 1927.