The Union Twings of Western Anatolia with World-Economy and Minorities Role (1876-1908)
Keywords: Western Anatolia, Economy, Europe, Ottoman Empire, Treaty of Balta Liman
XIX. century is the period during which the Ottoman economy has experienced of the diffuculties of integration with the world economy. İzmir, the most important port city of the country which is open the gate to the west land is the point where these events intersected. At the same time, İzmir was the major area where Greek and Armenian communities especially Greek communities inhabited in Western Anatolia. Christian bourgeoisie took root with their mahalle, villages, hospitals, schools and churches. Until the last quarter of XIX. century, Greek and Armenian mediators who were collaborationists of British merchants in this region, also started to set up of their independent cooperations. This process had not wholly finished the relationship between minorities and foreign capital. In this way, Greek and Armenian trade houses which operated all around the West Anatolia on behalf of their selves and also for British, started to widespread minority bourgeoisie who increased their power from agricultural production to manufacture, finance, navigation, international and regional trade etc. reached the top of their power before First World War. Whereas they were majority, Muslim population where still using traditional methods in both agricultural production and manufacturing industry and craft. The events in the region had influenced of "the sharing of means of production" and "the sharing of production types among different groups" in agricultural production. The sharing of agricultural production types which varies gradually from up to down that is, from higher exchange value and profit margin to the lower ones, restructured the hierarchy of production. Then new structure includes from up to down the foreigners who own the foreign capital, native minorities, and Muslim people respectively foreign and minority capital who settled in fruitfull lands around İzmir and some region, made native population living there waged semi-proleteria by riding them out from means of production. In spite of disintegration of guild and not achieving the sufficent capital accumulation and technological level in terms of western standarts, the traditional structure which transfer its accumulations in a different from to the next generation continue to survive with its internal dynamics and even improve. The most obvious evidence is the meeting the important part of the need of present the looms of both the region and out of region increasing gradually.