Özdemir Koçak

Keywords: Sinop, Excavation, Settlements


Sinop is an important harbor city located on the southern shores of the Black Sea. Evidence of dense settlements dating from as early as the late Chalcolithic age can be seen in the city and its environs. It is known that both human will and geographical features are the determining factors in the establishment of a settlement. The choice of Sinop as a settlement area was influenced by the water, soil, geographical location, historical natural roads, and mineral resources of the area. The most prevalently found culture in this area is that of the Early Bronze Age. While the number of settlements remained constant during the transition from the Late Chalcolithic (LCA) to the Early Bronze Age (EBA), there was a numerical decrease in the transition from the Early Bronze Age (EBA) to that of the Middle/Late Bronze Age (M/LBA). The increase in population during the transition from the LCA to the EBA, coupled with the larger size of the settlements evidenced during the transition from the EBA to the M/LBA may be signs of partial urbanization. As was the case in many areas of Anatolia, the political upheavals that occurred in Sinop during the first periods of the Iron Age influenced the move of these settlements to more mountainous areas. It is observed that the Sinop colony that was established on the Sinop peninsula reflects the general characteristics of cities of Greek colonies. This location was preferred due to its double harbor and protected site.