Robert L. Alexander

Keywords: Kültepe, Karum Kanish, Cylinder Seal, Ancient Engravers


Nimet Özgüç, The Anatolian Group of Cylinder Seal Impressions from Kültepe, Ankara, 1965 (hereafter AnatGr). Although few specific references will be made to this book, its content, observations and conclusions will be implicit throughout this paper. For example, I do not indicate earlier studies of the style of the Kültepe impressions as they are giyen fully in AnatGr, p. 45, to which add Mebrure Tosun, "Styles in Kültepe Seal Engraving as Expressions of Various Cultural Influences," in Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger on His Seventy - fifth Birthday, April 21, 1965 (Oriental Institute Publications, Assyriological Studies, 16), Chicago, 1965, pp. 183-188. All references to the seal impressions will follow the catalogue numbers in AnatGr, and of course this study is dependent on the excellent illustrations in AnatGr. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the active encouragement and cooperation of Tahsin and Nimet Özgüç, while I was engaged on this project. For work with the actual tablets I am much indebted to Raci Temizer, director of the Hittite Archaeological Museum at Ankara, and Seyyide Celikkol, curator of the tablets. For similar permission to study the tablets in Istanbul, I am indebted to Necati Dolunay, director of the Archaeological Museums, and the curators of the tablet collection, Muazzez Çığ and Hatıce Kızılyay. This work was accomplished during a study year in Turkey made possible by a fellowship granted by the American Research Institute in Turkey.