Altay Tayfun Özcan

Keywords: East, Trade, Caravan, Russia, Northern Countries, England


Mediterranean trade began to decline in the XVIth century because of new geographical discoveries. Especially in the middle of that century European traders preferred to use new routes rather than the old ones. Therefore, both Mediterranean states and east regions, gradually lost their commercial influence and power. On the contrary, Northern regions, especially Russia, gradually increased their commercial relations with the east. A lot of eastern goods were transported to northern regions via caravans and seaway. Eastern cities were monopoly powers in terms of taking a lot of goods under their control. Because of that situation Northern regions were depended on the Eastern ones. However, some Northern cities gained enormous profits from this trade. Especially, Russia was very successful in that process. Russia began to sell eastern commodities to England and other countries in the middle of the XVIth century. Both Russian traders and naturally Moscow Grand Principality strengthened their economic conditions through these relations. However, this profit was not greater than the revenue accrued from Eastern countries. More importantly, this trade were to be fresh blood for Eastern cities and states because of the new discoveries.