Establishment and Development of Rüşdiyes (Middle-Schools) in Denizli
Keywords: Denizli Rüşdiye School, Denizli Girls' Rüşdiye, Tavaslızade Ali Efendi, küre-i musattaha (flattened globe), Earthquake in 1899
This study was aimed to shed light on the historical development of rüşdiye schools (middle-schools) which was one of the civil educational institutions within the modernization period in Denizli. Therefore, the situations of teachers and students, the methods and ways to resolve the problems in teaching and training activities during the establishment and development process of rüşdiyes built in the centre and counties of Denizli from 1871 were considered. During the reign of Abdulhamid II, the first and the big improvement in the education of female students according to the new procedures was the opening of Denizli Girls' Rüşdiye in 1896. That school was built by Tavaslızade Ali Efendi, a local notable. In the following years, Tavaslızade Ali Efendi helped to meet the needs of school. It should be emphasized tl1at indigenous people had a role in the establishment of the modern educational institutions and removing illiteracy in Denizli. Like other schools in Denizli, rüşdiyes' significant trouble encountered during the development process were the damages of earthquakes occured in 1899. The effects of the earthquake on rüşdiyes -boys' and girls' rüşdiye-in Denizli were one of the primary concerns of this study.