Test excavations at Caunos were started in 1966 on behalf of the Faculty of letters, Ankara University, with the help of general directorate of Ancient Works and Museums of the Ministry of Education.
The research work which actually lasted three weeks in October was led by the author. Dr. Peter Herrmann, our epigrapher, partici-pated briefly in our operations this year. Other members of the team consisted of Oktay Pasinli, Süheyl Ünal, Seyhan Doruk, Ali Dağdeviren, İnci Üçer, Sevinç Yılmaz and Orhan Gürman.
The ancient city of Caunos is situated across the village of Dalyan, on the creek of Dalyan, anciently called Calbis, which connect the present lake of Köyceğiz to the sea. The city of Caunos which is geographically located on the border between Caria and Lycia was independent and an important center during the Persian war according to information learned from Herodotus. We also observe from various historical records that the dependent cities nearby served as export harbour. On the other hand, according to the early authors, the city of Caunos was a city of Caria during the middle of forth century. The city of Caunos which attracted attention as a result of articles published by Bean following his several trips to the area, was visited by various historians. But the city of Caunos, as Bean stated, has been neglected by excavators for some unexplained reason.
Research work was started in three separate locations as follows:
A. Around an ancient building near the harbour which was later understood to be a Stoa.
B. West-south city gate located south of walls encircling west of the city, for the purpose of investigating the walls of the city.
C. The tombs.
A. STOA :
The city is a large one. It was also largely inhabited during the Roman Period as indicated by the remnants of the theatre, bath and various other buildings near the harbour, such as the remainder of the customshouse which furnished significant data as regards to economy in the ancient period, and by the inscriptions. It was only natural that difficulty should be anticipated in research work to be carried out in a city which was inhabited several times, especially from the standpoint of choosing the place of initial work. In spite of difficulties anticipated, inscriptions discovered near the harbour which was protected with a chain in the old days (fig. 1 ) and a wall which is understood to have survived from ancient periods but still in good condition of which a small sections is visible and located underneath a Roman wall on the side of a country road crossing the city towards the village of present Çandır, indicated that this was the best place to start excavations. Customs house mentioned above is also located near this wall. For this reason we have started digging at this point for the purpose of uncovering this wall by following its length. The façade facing the harbour on the south was very smooth. Excavations were first started on this side. As digging progressed, it was observed that the wall extended from cast to west. In the end it became clear that this was the back wall of a stoa approximately 94 metre long. East and west corners and the sides have been uncovered. In view' of presence of entrances on two narrow sides (fig. 4) it resembles the stoa of Attalos II in the Athenian Agora.
We do not know whether there was an exedra in our stoa as in the Attalos Stoa. No such thing was observed on the eastern side (fig. 5) but on the western narrow' side at the edge of entrance (fig. 4) extending to the west a wall was established. It is quite possible that this was the wall of the exedra on this side. The stoa faces the harbour in the south. On the foundation of the back wall of the stoa which was cleared remains three row's of stones, first rowbeing thin, second one rather thick (0,51 ) and the third, a thin row' (0,28 m.) (fig. 6).
The system of a thick row between two thin rows in wall constructions is also observed on the internal side of the wall of stoa of Attalos II, and in the back wall belonging to the west wing the stoa facing the Lions harbour of northern Agora at Miletus.
When a comparison is made between our stoa and the harbour stoa at Miletus and the stoa of Attalos II, interesting figures and features will be observed.
The Attalos II stoa: This building has two stories and two ships with 6,57 meter and the other 6.27 meter breadth. It has two small entrances on the sides.
Its length including exedras is accepted as being 116 meters. But its actual length is stated as being 97.35 meter.
Milct harbour stoa west wing: It has one story built on pressed earth floor with a width of 6.29 meter. The thickness of the back wall is 0.59 meter and diameter of columns at the base is 0.67 meter.
Stoa at Caunos (fig. 4) : It has an internal width of 6.30 meter, single ship and two small doors on the sides (fig. 4.5). Its length is 94 meters and thickness of its back wall is 98 meter, and the thickness of the ante walls on the sides of the doors is 0,75 meter. The floor is of pressed earth. The diameter at base of column in Dor Style found in situ on the west (fig. 7) is 0.75 meter.
We can deduct the following conclusions from the figures given above: The stoa in Caunos has about the same length as that of stoa of Attalos II in Athens. It’s width excluding the shops is almost the same as those of the stoa of Miletus Harbour and of stoa of Attalos. In view of presence of entrances on both sides İt resembles the stoa of Attalos II as stated above. We had also indicated that the technique of construction in all three stoa walls were similar.
Naturally, these individual similarities in themselves do not mean much. In order to obtain more concrete information about the Caunos stoa, we have to wait for the discovery of upper sections of the edifices such as the columnar heads, architrave, etc., which are not yet available. At the present time we can state that the Caunos stoa had two stories in view of the fact that the wall of Caunos stoa was much thicker than that of stoa at Miletus (0.98 m versus 0.59 m) and that the diameter of the columns at Caunos stoa were larger then that of Miletus stoa (0.75 m. versus 0.67 m) (see footnote 17). As a matter of fact, the back wall of the first floor of the Assos stoa which had two stories, two ships and was 12.42 m wide, was close to one meter thick and the diameter at base of columns in front was approximately 0.75 m.
On the other hand, external faces of the walls of Caunos stoa were bossy in general, as observed on the walls pertaining to Helenistic Period (fig. 5,8 a-b). In fact a close similarity is observed from the standpoint of a wall construction technique when internal and external looks of the stage wall of Priene Theatre and the Caunos stoa are compared. The only difference is that the stones of Caunos were more coarsely cut.
We belive it is too early to make a statement regarding the purpose of Caunos stoa since there are no shops behind or no ware-houses underneath, and it could not have been used for commercial purposes only.
On the other hand this stoa, as the stoa facing the Harbour of Lions at the northern agora in Miletus, also faces the harbour. The customs house is very close to this stoa (see note 8). Official buildings such as Bouieuterion and Ecclesiasterion were also near the stoa.
In front of the stoa two monumental bases built on the east-south corner were discovered (fig. 9). The inscription on the stone uncovered in an inverted position in front of the smaller monument describes that the people of Caunos respected and glorified the Romans. All of these findings indicate with great probability that the site of our excavation İs the agora. The stoa in process of being unco-vered at Caunos must have a definite position and purpose as the northern stoa of the agora in Assos.
It is quite possible, as mentioned by R. Martin, that other stoas which are characteristic for this period of agoras, will be unco-vered at other sites in excavations to be carried out in the coming years. On the other hand, we must keep in mind that Caunos is not as large a center as Athens or Miletus. However, the fact that our stoa had most probably two stories verify the view' expressed by Martin that multi-storied stoas did occupy an important position in agoras in the Hellenistic period.
Studying the area in the north of the stoa wall found in Caunos seem to us just as important as studying the front portion of the wall in south. The reason for this is that many of the inscriptions published by Bean were discovered here. In this locality a long and narrow experimental trench was at first opened running in a north-south direction perpendicular to the stoa wall. Most of the stone fragments pertaining to the foundation of a building from late periods consisted of the many statue bases from probably B.C. 3th century (fig. 10). In spite of many bases discovered there unfortunately no statue was found. It is higly probable that the excavations to be carried out in this area shall be efficient especially in view of obtaining inscribed documents. But it is understood that the architectural remnants were destroyed by more recent buildings as seen in figure 10. Moreover, main layer of rock is found at a level of 0.80- 1.50 meter from the surface.
B. WEST-SOUTH CITY GATE:
Our team has placed importance in the search for the city wall which was greatly problematic and just as interesting, besides the area housing the stoa.
Various paths leading to Çandır from Dalyan converge at a point near the southern end of the wall encircling west of Caunos and then reach Çandır after passing through a gate of the old city there. We have established during the studies made to determine the position of this gate, that the two sides were constructed by using large blocks of stone which were 2.13 meter apart at the entrance point from the outside. The passage through the gate widens by 15 cm. on both sides at 0,46 m. (fig. 10 b, 11 b). The thickness of the wall at this point is 1.91 meter and it was built with big blocks of stones on the outside. The walls on the sides of the inside gate is laid in with small stones. This inner or second section was built with small stones and is 4.30 m. thick. Thus it is assumed that the walls on both sides of the gate had a thickness of 6.20 m. as a tower.
The external surfaces of the walls on both sides of the gate were bossy, isodoinic, the borders w’ere finely trimmed and many were rectangular with characteristics of Hellenistic Period (fig. 11 a).
The wall on the left hand side of the gate facing west projects as a tower probably to defend the gate. The construction technique of the wall at this point seems different at first glance from the sides of the gate. This wall which was constructed with a poligonal technique is accepted by certain researchers to be older than the walls of Hellenistic Period featuring rectangular bossy forms. On the other hand, Bean and Scranton are of the opinion that this wall was built at a later period - probably late Hellenistic - than the wall with rectangular bossy configurations in view of the fact that the border of some of the wall stones built with polygonal technique were framed with fine trimmings. The centers were roughly trimmed in bossy form and therefore differed from the old polygonal technique. Our studies seem to confirm Scranton’s opinion. It is, however, quite possible that these w'alls may be contemporary despite different techniques of constructions.
Because, as it will be seen in fig. 12a, the wall constructed with rectangular framed bossy stones coincides so well with the wall stones built with polygonal technique where they join at the corner and look so flush that it leaves no doubt that these two walls were built at the same time. Further, the internal surface of the wall falling inside the gate (fig. 11 b) is quite identical with the wall built with rectangular bossy stones as mentioned above from a standpoint of construction. The only difference is that the dimensions of the latter stones arc smaller. As it will be observed in figure 11 and 12B, the city wall on both sides of the gate seems to consist of two walls built either side by side or one behind the other. In fact, the polygonal wall seen in background in fig. 12b seems to have been built later on, on the top of the front wall with rectangular bossy stones. Unfortunately we have been unable to confirm whether or not these walls that seem to be two separate ones built side by side and one on the top of the other are separate walls. However, it will be proper to point out here that the rectangular bossy wall looks much like Hcraklcia (Latmos) and Priene walls within the group called Pseudo – Isodomic by Scranton. But the workmanship of Herakleia and Priene walls is far superior. Walls of Miletus that arc included in another group considered affiliated with this one by Scranton arc similar to these walls in Caunos. The walls in Herakleia, Priene and Miletus arc dated B. C. end of 4 th or beginning 3 rd. Although it was built with a Pseudo - Isodomic technique of this period the stones of the wall of Alinda stoa were much more regularly cut than those of Caunos.
During research work conducted at the gate we have found two lamps from B.C. 3 rd. century' (fig. 15/1 ), some fragments of megarion bowls, some fragments of glass vases from A. D. 1 st. to the 5 th centuries (fig. 15/2) and some items of Roman Pottery which probably were made during later periods.
C. TOMBS :
In 1963 a couros which could be dated to 3 quarter B. C. VI century was found. This men’s statue which is bited in the Bodrum Museum was first discovered by the peasants, then changed hands to some antique dealers, and lastly became property of the above named museum. According to information given by the peasents the statue was found outside of the city gate mentioned in section B above some 15-20 meters on the road to Çandır from the gate in front of the corner where the city wall turns to north again. Couroi which were described in a naked position are thought to be votive offerings erected in a cemetery, temple, etc. The place where cotiros was found is rocky. How and where it came from to this location is not quite known. The peasants stated that they have stepped over the statue of which a section was on the surface for many years without even being aware of its presence. We have been unable to find a clue that there was a cemetery or a temple in the vicinity. It is believed that public buildings such as temples etc. were situated in the vicinity of the customs house and the stoa uncovered near the harbour as mentioned in section A above. On the other hand, information regarding the tombs contained in publications about Caunos is limited to rock tombs and other Lycian type tombs only. But the city must have had another cemetery belonging to other periods and this was to be found.
Our expedition has decided to carry out research work on the buried tombs located outside of the citywall on east-south slope of the hill, east of the harbour, after having been informed that the tombs were being opened by the peasants.
When the excavation was completed two rows of tombs side by side and one on the top of the other were uncovered (fig. 13 a). Inside of the upper tombs was coated with mortar (13b.) These tombs which were close to the surface and dug in on a steep slope were heavily destroyed (fig. 13a and b). One of the tombs in the lower row is described below to have an idea about these tombs.
TOMB No.=1 (fig. 14) :
Internal dimensions are 135 cm. x 55 cm. The head of the tomb on the west rests on the main rock. Pebbles were seen at its bottom. Side walls were built in three irregular rows of stones. Inside height of tomb is 55 cm. Two white stone lids one 80 X to cm. and the other 65 X 10, cover the tomb. The lid stones were joined with mortar on all sides. A skull probably belonging to a child and some small finger bones were found inside the tomb. The other bones of the skeleton were discovered in small fragments and sometimes unidentifiable. The finds also include seven terra-cotta unguentaria (tear bottles) .
We have uncovered three other tombs near this one which were almost identical except for 3 lids covering them. In one of these we found a fragment of terra-cotta vase of which character is not known. Nothing was found in the others. No idea could be formed about the structure (fig. 13) of the upper tombs for they were almost completely damaged.
According to unguentaria (fig. 15/3) found in tomb No. 1, the lower tombs arc of B.C. 2 nd century. It is presently impossible to tell how late a period the upper tombs belong to.
Paavo Roos of Sweden’s Lund university recently studied the tombs at Caunos among others. Results thereof are going to be published in “Opuscula Atheniensia” VIII, 1968. Roos has mainly studied these tombs from an architectural stand point. We have seen the sherds he collected from the tombs at Caunos. This pottery which is kept at Dalyan primary school and at Bodrum museum is of Attic black glaze. They arc mostly crater fragments probably of 2 nd half of 4 th century and indicate the importance of these rock tombs at Caunos. There, it will be possible to obtain useful results from excavations to be made in these rock tombs.