Hüseyin Sever, Salih Çeçen

It is known that, as a result of Anatolia's entrance to the written period, with the documents belonging to the Assyrians, new inforrnation about the eras political history has been obtained. The Assyrian merchants, who only deals with commerce, never mentioned about Anatolias political, historical and diplomatic events in their documents which doesn't interest and effect them.

The correspandence between the Kaniğ and Mama kings, which have taken their historical place in the 2 nd Level, shows us Anatolia's Colony Period in a most clearly form[1]. Only this document can also give us an idea about the agreements and the disputes between Anatolia's native kings from time to time.

By the reason of Kaniğ and Neğa being in kind, while the Hitit's were yet eginning the Colony Age that is, the existance and the Hitit's were yet beginning the Colony Age that is, the existance and the disputes of the former Anatolia people should naturally be accepted. As a matter of fact, the subject of our declaration in the inscriptions belonging to the II. Level, shows us that the native kingdoms had problems and that revolts took place here and there.

The documents published and performed by the scientists in our area which is dated to the II. Level, has brought up to light that, besides the small city states, there were strong and powerfull states which the small states had united around. The best example for this is rub'um rabi'um which has been recorded as the Puruğbattum Kingdom.

Riots has been seen in the cities which hasn't been mentioned in some published documents [2]. The records which hasn't mentioned names naturally doesn't give us a useful clue while reaching the historical and geographical conclusing.

Now, we want to appralse the documents which mentions names and which gives us information about the political history of the period.

1) In the AKT I 78 numbered inscription which has been printed by the Türkish History Association, states that;The oath devotion which rabi sikkitim showed to Purušbattum, Watıšušana and Ušunala in Anatolia and in arla which the Sabüa's arrested the Assyrian merchants by waylaying on the road.

2) On the 3-6. lines in the letter written from İdi-Ištar to Aššur-nada says that, "kima mt Purušbattim lu Watıšušana sahatni aššiki ana Wabšušana l tiqma" (— Because of the riots in Purušhattum and Wabšušana, I couldn't pass to Watıšušana..)[3]. It could be understood that riots have taken place in Purušbattum and Wabšušana.

3) In the 12-15. lines of the Kt n/k 429 excavation inventory numbered colective delivery and deposit document, the sentence; "to ma-na eri'um KI A.ššur-bni rnr klazuzim ištu nukurkim ša Kaniš t ma-na-TA şibtam uşşab” (— ı o minas of copper is with Aššur-ni, the son of Ijazuzum. He will add one mina silver each as interest dating from the Kaniš war passes.

Because of this important event, we could frankly see that the Assyrian merchants used this event as the beginning of date in their documents. A war took pleace in Kani. But there is no sign about whom it took pleace between. But because of the limum names "Sudk Al-tkg and Aššur-damiq" it is impossible to date it to the II. Level.

Prof. Dr. Tahsin Ğozgüç, who has determined that gold, silver and other valuable things doesn't come out from the level that burned in Kani, says that the Assyrian merchants were prepared for an end like this, and they took their valuable things because they perceived this event. We wonder if the subject in this tablet is the Kani š war, that pushed the Assyrian merchants to a preparation like this?

It is very important that the profession "rabi daiikim" (— information chief) passes for the first time in the g. line in our tablet.

We have determined that in Anatolia, the city states spied for their own ztates, and that they set up an evaluation service with a leader.

We think that their is enough evidence to show the importance of this profession name in consequence with the dispution between the city states.

4) Balkan's, the letter from the Mama King Anum-klirbi to the KaniS King Warğuma; and the paragraph which contains the sentence; "The time when Labarğa gets hold of the kingdom" in p. 59 which is dated to the II. Level is suitable to tkae attention. Inar, Warğuma and Labarğa are mentioned as the Kaniš King in the II. Level documents. does the Kaniš war has a connection with the Labarğa period? It is impossible to give an answer to these questions with the present documents.

5) Another event is seen in the Kt n/k 1251 excavation inventory numbered document. In the 12-17. lines of the letter from a merchant called Usupi-ğkum to the persons Uşur-ğa-fitar, Ikün-piia and Adada, it states that; "ana ilain-pila qibima ğumma adini ina Kaniğ wağbki ana Wakianila tcik-na adi mkum inübu ffi telibam"(- Tell Iktm-pia that; if you have been waiting in Kani ğ until now, pass to Wağtianiia, don't come here until the country calms down.

Because of their commercial anxiety, merchants found it necassary to record this important event in this document mentioned.

6) Again, in the 25-26. lines in the Kt n/k 1464 numbered letter from a person called Usupiğkum to Uşur-ğa-Iğtar there is a sentence concerning a country which it's name hasn't been revealed, saying hthat; "mkum sabiat kima ilimu uşiam" (— There is a not in the country, come here when it's safe).

With the Kt n/k 76[4] excavation inventory numbered inscription, which gives us informations about the death of Asu, the Lubuzattiia King and which in the 12-16. lines in a debt contract done by the native people is used as a dating, we can unoderstand that in Elbistan [5] which is accepted as Lubuzattila on the Kayseri-Maraş route, mentions a kings name for the first time.

The events above which we say belongs to the II. Level has been performed by H. Sever all over again in order. The number of the limum officials is already about 100[6].

As a result we can understand that there has been riots and bloody incidents between Kaniš-Puruğlıattum-Wabšušana in Mid-Anatolia and WašlJaniia near Kani š and in Luljuzattila near Maraş. This means that this disorderness and wars very valuable materials couldn't be found between archeological remmants. That's why the Assyrian merchants felt very uncomfortable and dispatched the valuable minerals to Assyria. This shows us that they have acted very cleverly.

We hope to give you documents equipped with more information.

We find it reasonable to give three of the documents transcription, translation and te copies which was appralsed for the first time by us.

(1-2) Tell Usur-ğ'a-Htar that Usupi'&um says that; (3-6) The Kürum department stored your 8 rolls of cloth the day yo left. (7-10) After you left, they stored a roll each and I stored your share and I noted down 40 minas of copper for you and (11-I3) they also stored a mina of silver each, and I stored your share. (14-16)« You have to take the 200 minas of copper from the stock after weighing it on our stone. (17-20) I noted it down for you in the Kffi-um department. They calculated it and the amount of the "tkum" tax is 920 minas of copper. (21-22) They put on 40 minas of copper each on an account for their cloth. (23-24) Why is it like this and why can't I hear of you? (25-29) There is a not in the country. Come here when it is safe. Let your eye be on your child there.

(1-3) Teli Uşur-:ša-ntar, Iicim-pia and Adada that Usupi"šlcum says that; (4-6) Adada is bringing you 1 2/3 minas of gold with his own weighing stone whicih is carrying my seal (7-g) When the news that Uşur-ši-Htar is retuming reaches us, at that pleace, gold should be existed. (10-11) and let your correct news reach hear. (12-17) Tell that; if be is stili residing (waitign) in Kani, pass to Wağbanija, don't come here until the country calms down.

(1) 40 mina of coppers is with Iğba [. .] (2) 20 minas of copper is with Amar-Ağğur. (3-4) In the presence of ŞallimAğğur. 1 2 šeqels of silver is with Zu [. . .], the son of Baltuğar. (5-9) in the presence of Iğtar-pilab. 5 minas of copper is with Şilli-Iğtar. 1/3 mina "zigağarrum" and 1/2 ğeqe1 of silver is with Abiia,. 5 minas of copper is with Hada [.], the information chief. 2 minas of copper is with Had E. .1. ıı šeqe1 of silver is fith Usu [. . .]. (12-15) 10 minas of copper is with Ağšur-bni, the son of Hazuzum. dating from the Kani š war he will add one mina each as interest. (i6) In the presence of Şumi-abila and [. . .] zia. (17-19) I gaye it to Abkum to buy 3 ğeqels of silver and I gaye I ğeqe1 of silver for his sheeps. In the presence of Şallim-Ağğur. (20-23) i mina of silver has been added to "nisbkum" and "šaddu'kum" has been saturated. I gaye 7 1/2 ğeqe1 of silver to my represantative. (24-28) I gaye 2 šeqe1 as sending money to my representative. 1 1/2 ğeqe1 of silver to my aunt. ı eqe1 of silver to Kalamur/bur. 1/3 mina of silver to to gaye it for him. (29-30) I gaye 2 ğ‘eqels of silver to him (ü-Anum) for his sheeps. I delivered all of it to Sü-Anum (31) In the presence of Dadila, Puzur-Ağğur and Abunu. (32-34) In the presence of the son of didiia. 1/2 mina of silver is with Puzur-Ikar, the son of Idi-Sü' en. He is going to add ı mina as an interest to 2 šeqe1 each. (35) Şib'um month. ŞucWs limum. (36-38) ğeqels of silver are with Ağğur-ni, the son of Ağğur-bl-awkim. He will add I mi [na] to one and hafi of ğeqel as interest. Belti-ekallim month, Şuffi's limum of the represantative. (38-43) Il eqels of silver are with According to Kk-um's decision he will add (one and half ğeqe1 interest each). Ti'inkum month, Al-tMD's limum. (43-45) 19 1/2 ğeqels of silver are with Sumi-abija. He will add one šeqe1 each (interest). Ab-arrünu month, AHur-damiq's limum. (34-48) 12 minas of copper are with Rabüm. He will add one mina each (interest). Ti'intum month, Al-tM3's limum. 50 minas of copper are with Puzur-AHur. (49) 1/3 mina, ı šeqe1 of silver is with d [. . .] -bini. (50) He will add one and a half eqe1 as interest according to lUrum's decision. (51-54) Suffi's limum. X mina of copper is with tlacUnum. He will add 3+x šeqe1 (interest). Mah [hur-ili] month, SucU's limum. [. . . .] (55) Silver is with İme-ilum, the son of U [. . . .] (56) 'o .šeqels of silver are with Ennam-Miur, the son of I-Jannum. He will add one šeqe1 each (interest). (57) Kanbarta month, AHur-damiq's limum.


  1. Kemal Balkan, Letter, 142 fr.
  2. CCT 111 28a 29; KTH V 2a 8; BIN IV 34 2.
  3. Julius Lewy, KTH ı
  4. Veysel Donbaz, "Publication of the Kültepe Tablets Housed in Ankara" XXII. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale. Münster.
  5. F. del Monte-J. Tischler, Die Orts-und Gewassernamen der hethitischen Texte, p. 238.
  6. Hüseyin Sever, "The New Appralsiation of the Assyrian Commerce Colony Age Cronologyn, I. Hititology Congress, Çorum-iggo.