KUTLU EMRE

Maşat Höyük (ancient Tapigga)[1] has been excavated since 1973 under the direction of Prof. Dr. Tahsin Özgüç. I have been a member of the expedition since 1975 and would like to express my thanks to Professor Özgüç for permitting me to study and publish the Early Bronze Age material which is well represented at Maşat Höyük[2] with diverse remains.

The primary aim of Tahsin Özgüç is to expose the complete layout of the Hittite palace discovered at Maşat Höyük; the Hittite and the Early Brone Age settlements in the lower city wall be studied subsequently. The excavations revealed that on the ruins of the Hittite palace, built on the summit of the hill, there were two Hittite building levels and three Iron Age building levels, which were studied carefully in order to preserve the palace in its original state[3]. As Tahsin Özgüç reported, İn the process of laying the deep foundations of the palace which represents the third Hittite building level at the citadel, the Early Bronze Age buildings below had been demolished and destroyed[4]. However, isolated fragments of Early Bronze Age buildings appear below the floor level of the courtyard and of the northern colonnade of this extensive building. In the north - western section of the mound, which is outside the palace complex, the latest building level of the Early Bronze Age appeared as the first ‘cultural’ level. Apparently some areas on the citadel were left free of construction during the Hittite period and the Iron Age.

Although not extensively excavated as yet, the research carried out to date on the north - eastern corner of the palace colonnade on the western part of the mound, and, on the northern, western and southeastern slopes provides us with important information on the Early Bronze Age buildings, graves and on metal and terracotta objects. As with the remains of the Hittite period, the Early Bronze Age culture is evident on all parts of the mound[5]. The remains on the sides of the mound are badly damaged from erosion and from the years of use as farmland. The foundations of the Hittite buildings were removed; as a result, the remains from the Early Bronze Age are now very close to the surface. Erosion was also encouraged as the slopes were not inhabited after the Iron Age[6].

I—Architectural Remains:

The Early Bronze Age buildings uncovered in Squares B-C[7] were also traced in the adjacent Squares A-B/5-6 (Plan 1). The buildings are very close to the surface of the mound and form the first cultural level in this section, as we noted before. Some were destroyed due to the construction of the “building with the altar” (second Hittite level) as shown in the plan. The houses represent the latest building level of the Early Bronze Age. They were destroyed by a violent fire which affected the entire mound. Most of the foundations consist of large, rough limestone blocks arranged in a row, or of two rows of smaller stones (Pl. I - III). Mudbrick walls covered with thick plaster were occasionally preserved (Pl. II, 2). The wall of the largest square - shaped rooms do not exceed 3.5 m. in length ; the rectangular rooms are generally 3 m to 2.5 m. in size. The foundations are 1 m. deep. The floors are made of packed earth. The hearths in two of the rooms are preserved, as is the double firepot base in a house without its walls (Pl. III, 1). The roughness of the foundation stones does not give an impression of careful workmanship. Large storage - jars, bowls, pots, pitchers, small cups and cups, spindle - whorls and bronze pins were recovered from the floors. The buildings of this period, which was terminated with a conflagration as it was at the other sites in Central and Northern Anatolia[8], are not different from their contemporaries in Central Anatolia with respect to building technique and plan.
The excavated area at the center of the western part of the mound revealed that the foundations of the Early Bronze Age buildings were set on bedrock which is very close to the surface in this particular area (Pl. III, 2). The foundations, fragmentary and badly damaged from the digging of deep refuse pits during the Iron Age, belonged to residential buildings. A pivot - stone from a door was found together with various complete vessels among the burned debris which covered the floor. Two building levels dating to the Early Bronze Age were recognized in the south - western corner of this trench (Plan 2), which accords with the conclusions made during the Maşat Höyük excavation of 1945[9].

The foundations of the palace in Squares H - 1/8 and on the entire western wing were built on the ruins of the Early Bronze Age. The skeleton of an adult was found under the floor of a house in Sq. H - 1/8 (Pl. IV, 1).

The first of the two small trenches opened in the northern slope contained two building levels dating to the Early Bronze Age (Pl. IV, 2). As this area is now under cultivation, the foundation stones were removed when struck by ploughs. More extensive excavation of this area may increase the known number of the Early Bronze Age levels.

II — The Graves :

The second trench on the northern slope revealed four graves (Pl. V, 1). These consisted of one inhumation and three pithos burials arranged in a group under the floor level of the latest building level, which here is represented by fragmentary foundations 1 m. in height. The inhumed skeleton lay in a contracted position with the head to the east and the feet to the west. A bronze pin with round head was found with it. The skeleton mentioned previously was likewise found in contracted position with the head to the east and the feet to the west. (Pl. IV, 1). The three pithoi, buried side by side, have thick walls covered with a dark brown and polished slip. They have been set with their mouths facing cast. The bodies were arranged in contracted position with the head to the base of the pithos, so that they lay in cast - west direction. Two of the pithoi contained a bronze pin each: the third had a pin, a bronze earring and a pair of fluted bronze bracelets. The rims of the pithoi were blocked and supported with stones arranged outside the mouth and the body of the vessel.

Another pithos grave was found in the southern part of the palace courtyard; in this burial as well the body was placed in a contracted position with the head to the west and the feet to the east. In addition to a bronze pin, a pair of carrings and a bracelet, the personal ornaments from this pithos include beads of bronze, rock - crystal and faience found about the neck of the skeleton (Mşt. 78/157). The rock-crystal beads arc irregular pieces of unworked material imbedded into the pierced faience fabric. Some faience beads are rounded or slightly flattened in shape. None of the graves contain weapon offerings. The graves are dispersed and could be found under any house. Evidence for the custom of burying the dead together in a specific area has not been found within the settlement.

The graves are important for establishing the existence of intramural burial customs in the Early Bronze Age in the region of Maşat Höyük. This custom is widespread in northern Anatolia as demonstrated by Kaledoruğu (Kavak)[10] and İkiztepe[11]. However, the finds at Horoztepe[12], Tekeköy[13] and Kalınkaya[14] suggest the possibility of a burial ground immediately outside the settlement. Contrary to the practice in Western Anatolia, there is no definite distinction between intramural and extramural burials/cemeteries in this region. The Early Bronze Age burials at Maşat Höyük do not have a common orientation. The burial gifts are poor. In this respect They are similar to the graves at Kaledoruğu and Tekeköy[15].

III —The Finds:

A - The Pottery :

We noted before that two Early Bronze Age building levels were recognized at the citadel and at the northern slope of the mound; the later level was destroyed by fire. However, since none of the soundings in the lower city reached virgin soil or bedrock, the number of the known building levels and earlier cultural levels recognized through divers finds may increase in the future.

The Early Bronze Age pottery of Maşat Höyük is not different from the types of pottery common to north - central and northern Anatolia, especially that from sites located in the region between the Yeşilırmak and the Kızılırmak. It is impossible to make a clear distinction between the Early Bronze Age pottery of Maşat Höyük and the pottery from Alaca Höyük, 126 km. to the west. The pottery discussed here is now stored in the Tokat Museum.

The Early Bronze Age pottery is entirely handmade. Apart from the small vessels made of fine fabric, the pottery is usually a coarse ware in shapes of medium size. The paste is mixed with straw and sand. The majority of the vessels arc red slipped and fairly well polished. The red slip appears in various shades. Vessels with grey, brown or yellow slips arc also present, but in lesser numbers. The shallower vcsels are slipped inside and out, in contrast to their parallels at Alişar[16]. As with Alacahöyük[17] and Alişar[18], the shapes of the Early Bronze Age are few and fairly simple. Λ large proportion of the pottery collection, especially the larger vessels, was found on the floors of rooms of these levels (Pl. VI).

The Forms:

a. Small cups: (Figs. 1-9; Pl. VII, 1-2). The majority are red slipped, with a few examples slipped in brown and black; all are polished. They have everted rims and band-shaped handles. Some small cups have tiny knobs set under the rim (Fig. 4) or on the shoulder (Figs. 7-8). Others are decorated with horizontal, vertical or diagonal flutings.

b. Cups: (Figs. 10-22; Pl. VII, 3-4) Although similar to the small cups in form and technique, these are larger in size. Two fragments, slipped in grey and in black, arc ornamented with flutings (Figs. 10, 11 ). The shoulder of another example is decorated with incisions (Fig. 12). The cups usually have rounded bases; a few examples have flat bases. Their handles arc either oval, or, form a rectangle or triangle in cross-section.

c. Bowls: (Figs. 23-34; Pl· VIII. 1-3). The shapes of their mouths are varied. The bowls in Fig. 29 represent the simple rim, the bowls in Figs. 28, 30 and 31 represent the inverted rim, and those in Figs. 32-34 the everted shape of rim. An important group of this this type has carinated shoulders (Figs. 33-34). Some have knobs set on the shoulder (Figs. 23-25) or on the rim. One bowl is wheel - made (Pl. VIII, 3) and therefore the parallel of the wheel - made Early Bronze Age bowls of Kültepe[19].

d. Beak - spouted pitchers: (Figs. 38-40; Pl. IX, 1-4; X, 1-2). Ten complete examples were found. Eight of them measure between 7.5-12.5 cms. in height and 7-11 cms. in width. The larger pitchers can be as tall as 22 cms. The majority are red slipped and polished. The sections of the handles are oval, triangular or band - shaped. The necks are slightly flattened, resulting in oval-shaped cross-section (Mşt. 78/25).

e. Teapots: (Mşt. 77/123; Pi. XI, 2). A brown slipped, brightly polished teapot with a basket-handle is an example of a widely- known type[20]. These are terracotta parallels of the metal teapots found in Alaca Höyük[21], Kayapınar[22], Horoztepe[23] and in Western Anotolia[24]. The Early Bronze Age teapots[25] are known to be the prototypes of the refined teapots of the Assyrian Colony Period. A teapot fragment with a red slip darkened by fire is not of the basket - handled variety (Fig. 41).

f. Two-handled drinking - cups: Two fragments found in the debris of the latest building level of Maşat Höyük are examples of the “depas amphikypellon” type. The first fragment, fine tempered and mixed with sand (Fig. 45) is ornamented with wide red bands on its buff slip. The second fragment is black slipped and brightly polished. The lower ends of the two symmetrically opposed handles linked to the rounded base are visible (Pl. XIII, 2). The handles of such cups were also discovered as separate pieces. The parallels for both of our examples were found in Alişar[26] and in Kültepe[27].

Although the fragments were not in situ they prove that this type, widely known in Anatolia, was used as far north as Maşat Höyük. They also fill in the gap in the known distribution of the ‘depas amphikypellon’, reported to be found in Oymaağaç[28] and on display at Ankara Archaeological Museum, and help to clarify the chronology of the cemetery.

g. Lids: (Figs. 46, 47). Gray and brown slipped and polished, this pottery is similar in type to the lids known from Alaca Höyük[29]. They have vertical edges and flat upper sides. Their two or four symmetrically opposed handles have string holes.

h. Vases: (Figs. 48-55). These have rounded mouths, everted rims, straight necks, and rounded bodies and bases (Fig. 55; Pl. IX,2). The symmetrically opposed handles on the round part of the body generally have string holes. The lids described above were probably used with these vases.

Among the larger vases with wide, ovoid bodies are some examples with a single handle (Figs. 51, 52).

i. Pithoi: (Pl. XII, 1-2). The burial pithoi and the storage - jars usually measure above half a metre in height. They are made of coarser fabric in comparison to smaller vessels. They are brown or grey slipped and polished, with a few red slipped examples. The fabric is not well fired. They have a simple, everted rim, wide neck, ovoid body, and flat irregular base. Some have knob handles placed in symmetrical opposition on the shoulders.

The number of examples of notched pottery is small in Maşat Höyük in comparison to Alacahöyük[30] and Dündartepe[31] (Pl. XIII, 3). The probable reason for this difference is the as yet limited area excavated in the Early Bronze Age settlement. This type of ornamentation is usually applied to red slipped, brightly polished pottery.

The black slipped and highly polished pottery of Maşat Höyük is decorated with white paint (Pl. XIII, 3). This pottery is slipped in black on the inside and İn red on the onside, and polished. The technique of the pottery and its ornamentation consisting of groups of parallel lines, lozenges and zigzags, closely resembles numerous examples at Dündartepe[33]. As in Karaoğlan, the inside of some small pots from Maşat Höyük arc similarly ornamented. The pottery decorated with white paint is more common to the north and gradually decreases towards the south.

A type of pottery earlier than the varieties described above appeared in the Early Bronze Age level, principally in the debris directly above the bedrock. This consists of rather large bowls or fruit - stands with sharply carinatcd shoulders; the pots are slipped in grey on the inside and in black on the outside (Fig. 37), or in brown both inside and out (Fig. 35), or in black on the interior and in buff on the exterior (Fig. 36) and polished. Parallels for these were found in Alaca Höyük[34] and in Alişar[35].

A small vase from Maşat Höyük, slipped in buff on the inside and in black on the outside and brightly polished, has parallels in Horoztepe[36] and in Alişar[37]. Tahsin Özgüç has noted that the use of this pottery in Northern Anatolia extended over a longer period of time[38]. Known as the Late Calcolithic in Central Anatolia, this period is generally accepted to represent the first phase of the Early Bronze Age[39].

Two sherds found together with the pottery described above are wet - smoothed; one is a grey - slipped fragment of a vase, decorated with deep incisions and dots (Fig. 43). The other is a buff - coloured fragment of a bowl, ornamented with wide and deep flutings (Fig. 42). Being similar in nature to the finds from Büyük Güllücek[40] and Alaca Höyük[41], these finds are evidence for the existence of the Late Calcolithic period at Maşat Höyük.

Apart from the pottery, the Early Bronze Age finds made of terracotta arc follows: 1) Spindle - whorls, 2) pottery loom weights, 3) brushs; 4) Statuettes of animals, 5) Pedestal bases for pots, consisting of three stands on cylindrical bases. The close parallels for these objects arc present at other sites of Early Bronze Age date. So far, only the pedestals of group 5 represent a form which is peculiar to Maşat Höyük.

B - Metal Objects:

The metal objects were recovered from the houses and, more frequently, from the graves: they include carrings, bracelets, beads and pins. All are made of bronze. This far, weapons and metal vessels have not been found.

a. Pins: They are usually of the round-headed type. The shaft is set into the head. There are two pins with bent shafts. (Pl. XIV, 1-2; Fig. 61-62). Two pins which were grave offerings at Oymaağaç were bent in the same manner[42]. This was a wide spread burial custom of the Early Bronze Age which was also observed with the weapons and the metal vessels[43]. Another pin from Maşat Höyük is decorated with flutings on the head (Pl. XIV, 3; Fig. 63) ; it closely resembles another pin from Oymaağaç[44].

The parallels established by recent excavations will be important in assessing the date of the Oymaağaç cemetery.

b. Earrings: Ring shaped earrings were a common burial gift in the third and second millennia B.C. They are made of round wire, curved into a ring shape with overlapping ends.

c. Bracelets: These were found in both houses and graves. Two bracelets which served as burial gifts are decorated with groups of flutings; one is in the form of a spiral.

d. Necklace beads: The necklace beads are made of rock crystal and faience; there are also twisted bronze beads in the shape of spirals.

C-Bone objects:

The Early Bronze Age building levels of Maşat Höyük contaiend bone objects similar to those found in other sites of this period. They can be classified as 1) bone awls 2) Arrowhead, 3) Hammer made of stag’s antlers.[45]

From these initial finds we can conclude that the Early Bronze Age will eventually emerge as an extensive settlement which spread over the entire Maşat Höyük. The study of all the phases of the Early Bronze Age here will reveal the characteristics of the region during this period and will establish its interrelationships with other regions. Its intermediate geographical position suggests that evidence for such contacts will be recovered here.

The present finds have established that the Early Bronze Age at Maşat Höyük was contemporary with Central Anatolia’s Late Calcolithic - Early Bronze Age I, Early Bronze Age II and the early and middle phases of the Early Bronze Age III.

IV—Catalogue of the finds:

A - Pottery:

a. Small cups:

Mşt. 78/139

H.5.9 cm.; w.6.3 cm. Buff fabric. Thick walls. Hand made. Everted rim. Rounded body and base. One band handle, broken.

Sq. B/4. The trench in the western slope; above rock base.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/64 (Pl. VII, 2; Fig. 8)

H. 7.5 cm.; w.8.3 cm. Pale red slipped. Coarse. Rounded mouth, vertical neck. Rounded base. Oval cross-sectioned handle, broken. Four knobs on the shoulder.

Sq. C/6. Latest building level of the Early Bronze Age.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/58 (Pl. VII, 1 ; Fig. 9)

H.7 cm.; w.9.3 cm. Black slipped, brightly polished. Fine walls. Rounded mouth. The neck ornamented with dots arranged into zigzags, the body w'ith groups of flutings. Band handle.

Northern slope. The second sounding pit.

Tokat Museum.
Mşt. 78/116 (Fig. 7)

H.2.9 cm.; w. 8 cm. Brown slipped, brightly polished. Pronounced neck indention. Carinated shoulder, decorated with three groups of two flutings. Band handle concave ase.

Sq.S-I, from below the south - eastern foundations of the palace.

Tokat Museum.
b. Cups :

Mşt. 78/73 (Pl. VII, 3; Fig. 18)

H.7.8 cm.; w.15.7 cm. Light red slipped. Sooted. Everted rim extended to a flat surface. Rounded, irregular base. Band handle.

Sq. C/6-7, First building level.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/26 (Fig. 17)

H.11 cm.; w. 12.9 cm. Red slipped, brightly polished. Everted rim. Short, wide neck. Rounded body. Irregular base. One handle.

Sq. C/6.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/60 (Pl. VII, 4; Fig. 16)

H.14.8 cm.; w.16.7 cm. Red slipped, brightly polished. Thick walls. Rather short, wide neck. Rounded body and base. Band handle.

Sq.B/5, from burned debris.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/90
H.8.2 cm.; w.9.2 cm.

Red slipped, brightly polished. Everted rim. Wide neck. Rounded body. Small, irregular flat base. The rim slightly raised in the front. One band handle. Three groups of knobs arranged on the shoulder in pairs.

Sq. G/8. Under the floor of the edge of palace colonnade.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/144

H.12.4 cm.; w.18 cm.

Brown slipped, polished. Slightly everted, thick rim; the rounded body with finer walls. Irregular base. A pointed knob opposite the single handle and above the rim.

Sq. B/5

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/128

H. 24.5 cm.; w.27.7 cm. Brown - slipped, polished. Everted rim. Long, wide neck. Bloated, rounded body. Rounded base. Two knobs set above the rim opposite the single handle which connects the rim to the shoulder.

Sq. C/5. On floor of room.

Tokat Museum.

c. Bowls:

Mşt. 77/120

H.5.6 cm.; w.15 cm. Red slipped inside and out, brightly polished. Flaring rim. Sharp neck indention. Rounded shoulder. Rounded body and base. Three knobs set vertically on the shoulder, at reguler intervals.

Sq. C/5. On the floor.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/121

H.7 cm; w.16.3 cm. Brown slipped inside and out. Brightly polished. Similar to. Mşt. 77/120. Four knobs set in symmetrical opposition on the shoulder.

Sq. C/5. Found with Mşt. 77/120.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/89

H.6.1 cm,; w.15.2 cm. Red slipped inside and out. Polished. Thick walls. Simple rim. Flat, irregular base. Formed on a slow wheel. Widely spaced flutings on the outer surface.

Mşt. 78/76 (Pl. VIII, 3)

H.4.9 cm.; w.16.4 cm. Buff coloured, well worked paste. Well fired. Wheel-marks visible inside and out. Slightly everted flaring rim. Flat base.

Sq. D/6, on scorched floor.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/74 (Pl. VIII, 1)

H.6.3 cm.; w. 16.5 cm. Red slipped outside, sooted grey slipped inside. Brightly polished. Simple rim. Irregular rounded base. Thick walls.

Near Mşt. 78/76.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/149 (PL VIII, 2)

H.7.8 cm.; w.17.6 cm. Red slipped inside and out. Polished. Slip not preserved. Simple,slightly inverted rim. Rounded body. Irregular base. Slightly carinatcd shoulder.

Sq. B/5. From above the pithos grave of child.

Tokat Museum.

d. Beak - spouted pitchers:

Mşt. 78/140

H.7.5 cm.; w.7.1 cm. Red slip badly worn. End of beak-spout is cut straight. Short, wide neck. Rounded body and base. Single band handle connects the rim with the shoulder.

From sounding on the western slope. On bed rock.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/56

H.8 cm.; w.8.7 cm. Red slipped, polished. Wide neck. Rounded body and base. Cross - section of handle triangular.

Sq. B/5. Burned debris of the Early Bronze Age.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/142 (Pl. IX, 2)

H.10.9 cm.; w.9.1 cm. Red slipped, brightly polished. The end of the wide beak is slightly curved. The wide neek has ovoid cross - section. Rounded body and base. Handle base with ovoid cross - section.

Sq. B-C, on the floor of burnt room.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/143
H.10.6 cm.; w.10 cm. Red slipped. Brightly polished. Small piece broken off from end of wide beak. Bloated body with slight carination. Rounded base.

Next to Mşt. 78/142

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/62 (Pl. X, 1)

H.10.9 cm.; w.9.5 cm. Red slipped, polished. Wide neck. Rounded body and base.

Sq. C/5. From the latest building level.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/63 (Pl. IX, 3)

H.12.4 cm.; w.10.4 cm. Red slip badly worn. Small beak. Fairly long neck. Rounded body and base. Handle broken.

Sq. C/5. From the latest building level.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/117

H.10.3 cm.; w.8.2 cm. Brown slipped. Well polished. Thick walls. Wide and fairly upright beak. Short, wide neck. Rounded body and base.

Sq, B/5.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/25 (Pl. IX, 1)
H.11.2 cm.; w.9.9 cm. Red slipped. Brightly polished. Short neck with ovoid cross - section. Small beak. Rounded body and base.

Sq. H/8.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/59

H.11.8 cm.; W.11.2 cm. Red slipped, brightly polished. Wide neck. Smal beak. Rounded base.

Sq· C/5. From the latest building level.

Mşt. 78/147

H.11.4 cm.; w.8.7 cm. Light red slipped. Polished. Partly sooted. Wide neck. Fairly long neck. Rounded body and base. Three groups of two knobs set on the shoulder. Band handle.

Sq. A/4. Latest building level.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/115 (Pl. IX, 3)

H. 13.3 cm.; w. 10.2 cm. Brown slip variegated with red. Sooted. Short, wide neck. Upright beak. Rounded body and base. Handle with ovoid cross - section.

Sq. R/5

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/29 (Pl. X, 2)

H.21.7 cm.; w.23.2 cm. Red-brown slipped. Glossy polish; visible polish marks. Small beak. Short, narrow neck. Rounded shoulder. Round, bloated body. Flat base.

Sq. C/5

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/129

H.22 cm.; w.22.7 cm. Red slipped, polished. Small beak. Short, narrow neck. Bloated, round body. Rounded base. Handle with ovoid cross-section.

Sq. C/5. On the floor,

Tokat Museum.

e. Teapot :

Mşt. 77/123 (Pl. XI, 4)
H.7,1 cm.; W-9 cm. Brown/grey slipped. Brightly polished. Rim slightly thickened from outside. Rounded body and base. The basket - handle and the tip of the small spout arc broken.

Sq. B/5. On the floor of room.

Tokat Museum.

g. Lids:

Mşt. 78/20 (Fig. 46)

H.2 cm.; w.5.3 cm. Grey slipped, polished. Simple rim. Slightly curved upper part; two symmetrically opposed handles with string holes.

Sq. G/5. On the floor of the room to the south of the Hittite building with altar.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/65 (Fig. 47)

H.6.7 cm.; w.26.4 cm. Light brown slipped. Polished. Four handles with string holes, set opposite each other on the upper edge.

Sq. H/8. Under the foundations of the southeastern wall of the Hittite palace.

Tokat Museum.

h. Vases:

Mşt. 78/27 (Pl. IX, 2. Fig. 55)

H.11.2 cm.; w.11.7 cm. Dark grey slipped. Brightly polished. Simple rim. Short, wide neck. Rounded body and base. Two handles with string holes, set opposite eack other on the widest part of the body.

Sq. C/6.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/148

H.11.5 cm.; w.8.5 cm. Red slipped. Brightly polished. Soot traces. Simple rim. Short and fairly straight neck. Wide body. Rounded base. Two handles with string holes, set opposite each other on the widest part of the body.

Sq- A/5.

Tokat Museum.

i. Pithoi :

Mşt. 78/67 (Pl. XII, 1; Fig. 59)

H.47.8 cm.; w.49 cm. Red - brown slipped. Polished. Simple rim. Rounded body. Small, flat base. Two rounded knobs set between the two handles placed opposite each other on the shoulder.

Sq. B/5. Under the floor of the Early Bronze Age room to the south of the Hittite building with the altar.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/66 (Pl. XII, 2; Fig. 60)

H.56.7 cm.; w.42.8 cm. Brown slip variegated with black. Brightly polished. Simple rim, slightly everted. Upright neck.

Ovoid body. Slightly concave base.

From sounding in the southern terrace.

Tokat Museum.

B. - Metal objects:

a. Pins:

Mşt. 78/52 (Pl. XIV, 1; Fig. 62)

L.6.5 cm.; w.0.9/0. 1 cm. Rounded head. Sharp point. Shaft bent.

From sounding in the northern part of the mound. Second pithos burial.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/53 (Fig. 61; Pl. XIV, 2)

L.7.3 cm.; w.1.3 cm. Rounded head. Sharp point. The shaft is bent.

From second sounding in the northern part of the mound. Second pithos burial.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/54 (Pl. XIV, 1 ; Fig. 63)

L.9.2 cm.; w.1.2 cm. Rounded head. Broken shaft. The head and the upper part of shaft fluted.

From the sounding in the northern part of the mound. First inhumation.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/153

L.11.2 cm.; w.0.8/0.3 cm. Rounded head. Sharp point. Shaft bent.

Sq. D/8. From pithos grave.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/159

L.8.2 cm.; w.0.6 cm.

Rounded head. Sharp point. Shaft bent.

Sq. D/8. From pithos burial.
·
Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/160

L.9.7 cm.; w.0.8 cm. Rounded head. Sharp point. Shaft, bent. Badly corroded

Sq. D/8. Found together with Mşt. 159.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/162

L.6.6 cm.; w.0.7 cm Rounded head. Shaft, bent Broken point.

Sq. D/8. From of the Early Bronze Age level.

Tokat Museum debris.

Mşt. 77/118

L.10. 1 cm. ; w. 1.3 cm. Rounded head. Sharp point. Slightly bent shaft. Upper shaft ornamented with five rows of fine flutings. Intact.

Sq. C/5. From the Early Bronze Age room.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 77/119

L.8.4 cm; w.0.7 cm. Rounded head. Sharp point. Intact.

Near Mşt. 77/118.

Tokat Museum.

b. Earrings:

Mşt. 78/158 a-b

a) D.1.8 cm.; th.0.2 cm. b) D.1.8 cm.; th.0.4 cm. Both carrings formed by bending a round wire and overlapping the ends.

Sq. D/8, found with Mşt. 78/159, 160, 161, 157.

Tokat Museum.

c. Bracelets:

Mşt. 78/161

D.6.1 cm.; th.0.5 cm. A fairly wide and flat wire twisted three times into spiral shape. Ends do not overlap.

Sq. D/8. Found in pithos grave together withe Mşt. 157, 159 and 160 (on the arm bone).

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/50 (Pl. XIV, 4 Fig. 64)

D.6.1 cm.; th.0.4 cm. Complete circle formed from wire with oval cross - section. Decorated with three groups of regular flutings.

Second Sounding in northern part of the mound. Pithos grave, on arm bone.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/51

D. 6 cm.; 0.4 cm. Similar to Mşt. 78/50. Discovered in the same pithos grave and on the same arm bone.

Tokat Museum.

Mşt. 78/70

D.7 cm.; th.0.4 cm. Formed by irregular bending of a round wire; ends free do not overlap.

Sq. C - 7/6. Debris of the Early Bronze Age. Level

Tokat Museum.

d. Necklace Beads:

Mşt. 78/157.

The collection forms a row 14 cm. long. Composed of six spiral shaped bronze beads, five round, flattened faience beads; several beads made of rough rock crystal and faience; and cylindrical faience beads.

Sq. D/8. Next to Mşt. 78/158-161, near the neck of the skeleton.

Tokat Museum.






















Footnotes

  1. T. Özgüç, Excavations at Maşat Höyük and Investigations in its Vicinity. T. T. K. Y. V, 38. Ankara 1978, p. XIV; S. Alp, Maşat Höyük’te keşfedilen Hitit tabletlerinin ışığı altında Yukarı Yeşilırmak Bölgesinin coğrafyası hakkında. Belleten 164 (1977), p. 640.
  2. T. Özgüç, Maşat Höyük, p. XIV.
  3. Ibid, pp. XIII, 52.
  4. Ibid, p. 52.
  5. Ibid. p. XIV.
  6. Ibid. p. 66.
  7. Ibid, plan 1.
  8. T. Özgüç, Early Anatolian Archaeology in the Light of Recent Research. Anatolia/Anadolu VII (1963), pp. 15, 19.
  9. Haberler: T. T. K. “Genel Kurulu”nun Yıllık Toplantısı - Maşat Höyük Kazısı. Belleten 37 (1946), p. 220.
  10. T. Özgüç, Die Bestattungsbraeuche im vorgeschichtlichen Anatolien. Ankara 1948, p. 70-71; T. Özgüç, Samsun Hafriyatının 1941-1942 yılı neticeleri. III. Türk T. Kongresi. T. T. K. Y. IX, 3. Ankara 1948, p. 440.
  11. U. B. Alkım, Haberler: T. T. K. “Genel Kurulu”nun Yıllık Toplantısı- İkiztepedeki Kazı, Belleten 160 (1976), p. 718.
  12. T. Özgüç - M. Akok, An Early Bronze Age Settlement and Cemetery. T. T. K. Y. V, 18. Ankara 1958, p. 40.
  13. T. Özgüç, Bestattungsbraeuche, p. 68-70.
  14. T. Özgüç, Maşat Höyük, p. 98, Note 38.
  15. T. Özgüç, Bestattungsbraeuche, p. 90.
  16. H. H. von der Osten, The Alishar Hüyük, Seasons of 1930-32. Part I. OIP XXVIII. Chicago 1937, p. 154.
  17. H. Z. Koşay - Μ. Akok, Ausgrabungen von Alaca Höyük. Vorbericht über die Forschungen und Endeckungen von 1940- 1948. T. T. K. Y. V. 6. Ankara 1966, PI. 48-52; H. Z. Koşay - M. Akok. Alaca Höyük Excavations preliminary report on researches and discoveries 1963-1967. T. T. K. Y. V, 28. Ankara 1973, Pls. 54-65.
  18. H. H. von der Osten, OIP XXVIII, p. 151, Pl. VIII.
  19. T. Özgüç, Anatolia VII, p. 33; Μ. Mellink, Anatolian Chronology (Chronology' in Old World Archaeology). Chicago 1965, p. 113.
  20. H. H. von der Osten, OIP XXVIII, Fig. 169, d 1331.
  21. H. Koşay, Alaca Höyük 1937-39. H. 178
  22. R. Temizer, Kayapınar Höyüğü buluntuları. Belleten 71 (1954), p· 325, Fig. 15.
  23. T. Özgüç, Horoztepe, p. 43, Fig. 6, Pl. IV, 5.
  24. K. Bittel, Beitrag zur Kenntnis anatoliseher Metallgafässe der zweiten Hälfte das dritten Jahrtausend v. Chr. JdI 74 (1957), p. 2-5, Fig. 7-20
  25. K. Emre, The Pottery of the Assyrian Colony Period According to the Building Levels in the Kaniş Karum. Anatolia/Anadolu VII (1963), p. 88.
  26. Η. H. von der Osten, OIP XXVII, p. 158, Fig. 164, Pl. IV, 7; P. Z. Spanos, Untersuchungen über den bei Homer “depas amphikypellon” genannten Gefässtypus. Ist. Mitt. Beiheft 6. Tübingen 1972, p. 108, III (AB III).
  27. N. Özgüç, Marble Idols and Statuettes from the Excavations at Kültepe. Belleten 81 (1957), p. 79, Figs. 28-29.
  28. P. Z. Spanos, “depas Amphikypellon” p. 69, Pls. 1-4
  29. H. Z. Koşay, Ausgrabungen von Alacahöyük 1936. T. T. K. Y. V, 2 a. Ankara 1944. p. 92-93, PI. 139-160, 168.
  30. H. Z. Koşay, Alacahöyük 1937-39, Pl. 100, Alaca Höyük 1963-67, PI. LXXXI, A ı. 57.
  31. T. Özgüç, III. Türk T. Kongresi, p. 403, Pl. VII, 3.
  32. Ibid, p. 400.
  33. R. O. Arık, AA (1939), Fig. 9.
  34. H. Z. Koşay, Alaca Höyük 1936, Pl. 122.
  35. H. H. von der Osten OIP XXVIII, Fig. 75, e 1704.
  36. T. Özgüç, Horoztepe, P. 61, Fig. 120.
  37. H. H. von der Osten, XXVIII, Fig. 67.
  38. T. Özgüç, Horoztepe, p. 61.
  39. W. Orthmann, Die Keramik der Frühen Bronzezeit aus Inneranatolien. Berlin 1963, p. 16; J. Mellaart, Ancient Cambridge History (1962), p. 7.
  40. H. Z. Koşay - Μ. Akok, Ausgrabungen von Büyük Güllücek. T. T. K. Y. V, 16. Ankara 1957.
  41. Alaca Höyük 1936, p. 157 ff.; Alaca Höyük 1940-48, p. 213 ff.; Alaca Höyük 1963-67, p. 119.
  42. AfO 21 (1966), p. 176, Fig. 59 c.
  43. T. Özgüç, Horoztepe p. 52.
  44. T. Özgüç, Maşat Höyük, p. 95, Figs. 92-94.
  45. T. Özgüç, III. Türk T. Kongresi, p. 402 and Note 15.

Şekil ve Tablolar