ISSN: 0041-4255
e-ISSN: 2791-6472

Tülay Ali̇m Baran

Keywords: Ottoman Empire, Mondros Armistice, Allies of World War I, Germany, Austria


At the end of the First World War, the relations between the Ottoman Empire and its wartime ally Germany changed drastically. Not only did the 19th clause of the Mondros Armistice require all German and Austrian citizens, both military and civilian, to leave the country, but the 23rd clause prescribed a complete cessation of relations between the former allies. Postarmistice developments were formed by these clauses. By the 31st October the Germans left the area around the straits and steps were taken to ensure that all German and Austrian citizens left the country in accordance with the related clauses of the armistice. Even though the term of this expulsion was one month, those situated in far away places were only ordered to leave as soon as possible. Notwithstanding this, various factors like illness, the danger that the expulsion of the people working for the railroads would have created difficulties, and the desire by many to remain, pushed forward the time limits prescribed by the armistice. The British High Commission very carefully studied the reasons of those who stated that they could not leave, asked for medical reports from those who were too ill to leave, and declared that those who worked for the railroads would keep their positions until people that could substitute them were found. The result of all this was that the precise requirements of the Mondros Armistice related to the position of German and Austrian citizens were applied only with delay.