Mücahit Özçeli̇k

Keywords: İstanbul, Bosphorous and Dardanel, Allied Powers, Evacuation, Turkish Navy

Abstract

Following the armistice of Mondros, It was decided that İstanbul which was occupied by allied powers would be given back to the new Turkish state. The invading English, French and Italian powers completed the evacuation between 25 August, 1923 and 2 October, 1923 in accordance with the protocol. The invading powers evacuated not only Istanbul but also Çanakkale, Tenedos and Imbros. With the signing of the surrender protocol, the last soldiers of the invading powers left Istanbul following the ceremony which was held in Dolmabahçe on the 2nd of October, 1923, however, some of the ships of the allied powers were going to leave the Bosphorous strait on the 31st of October, 1923. Turkish navy, which was under the control of allied powers since the treaty of Mondros, was in action again after five years and sailed to Mediterranean Sea nine years later for the first time. After the armistice of Mudania, the first division of Turkish army, (known as "Demir Firka) which was deployed near Istanbul, reached to the Anatolian part of İstanbul on 5 October. Turkish army arrived at Sirkeci and was welcomed by a very large crowd. İstanbul was under the control of the new Turkish state after the 3rd corps commanded by Şükrü Naili entered into İstanbul. Debates on deciding the capital city started after İstanbul was given back to the new Turkish state. When Turkish Grand assembly declared that Ankara was the capital of Turkey, the debates came to an end. Although the minorities which cooperated with the allied powers worried about their future, their worries ended with the arrival of Turkish army in İstanbul.