The Danubian Bulgar Ethnonyms in the Medieval Islamic Written Sources (A Chronological Review)
Keywords: The Danubian Bulgar Khanate, The Byzantine Empire, The Medieval Islamic Written Sources, The Southeastern Europe, A.D. 8th-10th Centuries
The medieval Islamic written sources have detailed information on the Danubian Bulgar Khanate. On the other hand, both the chronological uncertainties and the multiplicity of the ethnonyms having assigned by the Muslim authors regarding that state, have prevented modern researchers from taking advantage of these sources. All of these ethnonyms were used for a specific period of the Danubian Bulgar Khanate. If these ethnonyms necessarily should be given in a chronological order, the first ethnonym is (Burdjan: from the beginnings of the 8th century until the middle of the 9th century). The second ethnonym is (Burghar, from the second quarter of the 9th century until the beginnings of the 10th century). The third ethnonyms are and variant of this (Bulghar ve Bulghari, the beginnings of the 10th century and the ends of the third quarter of the same century). The fourth ethnonyms are and variant of this (Bulgharu'd-dahil ve Bulghar-ı Enderuni, the second and third quarters of the 10th century). And the last ethnonym is (Bulkar, from the beginnings 10th century until the third quarter of the same century).