New Researches on the Ancient Turkish City of Balasagun
Keywords: Turkish City, Balasagun, Karakhanids
The present article attempts to shed light on the history, origins, foundation, and founders of the ancient Turkic city of Balasagun by consulting the available material in a number of languages as well as the data provided by archaelogy. In the face of the deplorable insufficiency of the relevant original sources, the issue of the origins, founders, and date of foundation of Balasagun has been a matter in controversy among the scholars. In the present article, having previewed and assesed the above-mentioned hypotheses, the information pertaining to Balasagun contained in the Arabic, Turkish, and Persian sources is analysed. Departing from the conclusions of the comparative analysis concerning the etymology of the word Balasagun, the city of Balasagun is estimated to have been located the in the site of current ruins of Burana to the north of the fortress of Akbesim (in contemporary Kyrgyzstan) which used to be known historically as "Suyab". It is argued that the Orkhon Uygur state's ruler (Kaghan) is tlhe founded the Balasagun city, then under the name of "Boyla Sangun" as it had been testified by the Chinese sources. Following the great migration of the Uygurs from the Orkhon area, Boyla Sangun became the capital of the Karakhanid state now under the modified name of "Balasagun". It is also argued that the rulers who built Balasagun and those who established the city of Besbalik were of the same origin.