Halil İnalcık

Keywords: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nutuk, 1922-1927, Revolutions, Caliphate


My focus in this paper will be on how Atatürk's inkilâbs or "revolutions" actually constituted one total revolution during which the events occurred in sequence as links of one whole historical process. I believe most of the historians of Atatürk's revolution are often too dependent on his historic speech, Büyük Nutuk, which he delivered after the major inkilâb was already completed in 1927. The Nutuk is one and undoubtedly the most important source for the period. But basically it was delivered before a party convention for explanation and justification of the inkilâb and the tactics used for its victory. It will be seen that historically the separation of the Caliphate from the Sultanate and the abolition of the 'atter set off a sequence of events and movements which led to the major inkilâbs including the abolition of the Caliphate and other secularizing reforms in the period 1922-1927.