Refik Duru

Conclusion

THE FINDS

Despite the apparent lack of architecture, a great quantity of pottery and small finds was recovered. Because the great majority of these came from the disturbed levels near the surface, chronological interpretation is difficult. For presentation here we have separated the finds of the deeper strata (characterized by the wooden remains) from the finds recovered in the disturbed layers of the upper one-and-a-half meters.

Pottery: Three different types of pottery appear in the upper layers. The first of these is brownish-gray ware, self-slipped and burnished. A most outstanding characteristic of vessels in this ware are vertical bands -- thickenings in the wall near the vessel rims -- sometimes three or four centimeters thick in profile (Pls.9/5-8; 11 /1 ; 17). These bands appear sometimes only on a single surface of the vessel, but in other instances on both the interior and exterior near the rim; the vessel walls tend to be broken below these thickenings. These bands most probably represent a kind of reinforcement; the potter may have added strips of clay to weak joints in the vessel wall where two stabs of clay were bonded. The pottery repertory of this ware, including base and lug forms, is presented on Plates 8 through 11 and 12/5-7. Some vessels of this very distinct type boast relief ornament (Pls. 13; 18/1-4). The second type of pottery is a coarse ware decorated with pointillé and notching (Pls. 12/12-15; 18/5-8). Dark-faced, the ware is quite coarse in texture with the surfaces left un- bumished. The third and final pottery type (Pl. 12/8-11) resembles the wares with red painted ornament on a pale ground, so widespread in the Burdur region,known İn the Early Chalcolithic phases of both Hacilar and Kuruçay Höyük.

The pottery from the lower strata where the wooden remains occur (Pls.14; 15) is indeed not very different from the types described above. Here, however, the first two types -- the variety with thick vertical bands at the rim and that with pointillé or notched decoration-- are more poorly represented, whereas the third --the Hacılar painted pottery— becomes in¬creasingly more common in the lower levels

Small finds of clay: A good number of human figurines have been re¬covered. Some of these are steatopygic representations of seated women (Pls.19/2,3; 21/2,3) Here the heads were separately formed on a peg which was inserted into a hollow between the shoulders (Pls. 19/5-7;6,7). Other figurines depict standing females with the arms either across the breast or hanging at their sides (Pls. 19/1; 21/1). These latter display more normal proportions. Finally, there is a type of extremely stylised idols (Pls.20/1-3; 21/4; 22/1,2).

Other clay finds include seals (Pls.20/6-9; 22/4-7); boxes or miniature tables (Pl.23/1,2); spoons (Pl.23/4); lids (Pl.23/3); and elongated balls pointed at the ends, probably sling pellets (Pl.23/5).

Stone artifacts: Nearly too examples of axes and chisels were found (Pls.24/4-10; 26/1-7), one of these recovered in situ in a haft of antler (Pls.24/4; 26/1). Other stone objects include a flat disc-shaped scraper (Pls.24/3) and a great quantity of beads, the latter from various levels. One group of beads found together we have illustrated strung as a neck¬lace (Pls.25; 26/8; 27).

Tools of chipped stone: Blades of flint and obsidian were plentiful. Two flint points among the surface finds are most striking; these exhibit pres¬sure-flaking (Pl.24/1,2).

CONCLUSIONS

A thorough analysis and dating of the finds is difficult with so little stratigraphy yet known. We can say, however, that the pottery, as well as the small finds, displays enough homogeneity to suggest the passage of relatively little time between the earliest and the latest artefacts. The pot¬tery and figurines displaying a close relationship with other sites in the Burdur region clearly belong to the Early Chalcolithic Period. Certain dis¬tinct characteristics among the pottery and figurines foreign to these other contemporary centers might be interpreted as independent traits local to the vicinity of Bucak.The vertical bands at the vessel rims and the relief ornament on these vessels, the seated female figurines, and the flat idols appear to be proper to Höyücek. The fact that these three latter have been found neither at Hacılar nor at Kuruçay, suggests that that at least these finds may even represent a subsequent phase, a Middle Chalcolithic Period. The pressure-flaked points, on the other hand, recalling the chip¬ped stone industry of the Early Neolithic Period in the Konya Plain rat¬her than any local finds, suggest that perhaps very early phases of the Neolithic may exist in the lower levels of the Höyücek mound.

* My warmest thanks are due to my colleague Jean D. Carpenter Efe, who translated the summary of the excavation report into English.

Footnotes

  1. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesinden Sayın Prof. Dr. Burhan Aytuğ, parçaların 3-4 yaşındaki meşe ağaçlarına ait olduğunu ve tümüyle kireçleştiğini, içinde karbonile hiç bir hücre kalmadığını bildirmiştir. Sayın Aytuğ’a içten teşekkürlerimizi sunarız.
  2. Karain'de bulunan bir çömleğin ağzının iç tarafında tutamak vardır (bk. Seeher, Jurgen, “Antalya yakınlarında Karain Mağarasındaki Kalkolitik Çağ buluntuları", V. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı, 11, Ankara, 1988, Resim 5/1). Meslektaşımız Dr. Seeher bu parçayı EKÇ veya belki hemen sonrasına ait gibi görmek istiyor. Bu parçanın bizim ilgilendiğimiz mallarla benzerliği açıktır.
  3. Hacılar 1. kat (Mellaart 1970 b, Lev.CX/5; Fig. 109/24), Afrodisias GNÇ (?) (Joukowsky 1986, Fig.375/1) ve Demircihűyük’te (Seeher 1987, Lev. 21/1-10) bulunan çentik bezekliler, şimdilik Höyücek için en yakın paralellerdir.

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